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The following translation of "Enseignements qui enseingnent a apareillier toutes manieres de viandes" is based on this transcription by Thomas Gloning. The numbers in brackets before each paragraph are the line numbers for the corresponding text in the original source.

© 2005 Daniel Myers - This electronic document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes as long as the copyright and this notice are included.

There is also a plain text version.

Lessons which teach the preparation of all manner of meats (ca. 1300)

See here the lessons which teach preparation of all manner of meats: firstly of all manner of meats and the sauces which are appropriate to them, like pork, veal, mutton, beef; and after of smaller meats, like kid, lamb and piglet; And after of all manner of birds, like capons, hens, geese, domestic and wild ducks; and after of all manner of game birds, like cranes, grouse, herons, moor hens, coots, noncelles 1, cormorants, partridges, turtledoves, wild hens, plover and all the sauces which are appropriate to them; and after of civeys of chicks, hares and rabbits and of all civeys and brouets, and soups that one is able to make or them; and after of saltwater and freshwater fish and all the sauces which are to be made in all forms.

Pork: roasted loin, in winter and in summer, with green garlic. And which if wanted in gravy then cut it into pieces; And then cook onions in grease, and ground pepper and other spices and toasted bread, and grind in a mortar; Then temper with the water that the pork cooked in; Then put it to boil and put over the pieces which have been pulled and of salt, and all this put in a bowl with the gravy thereon.

Other parts of fresh pork, in winter and in summer, with green sauce, without garlic, of pepper and ginger and parsley and sage, tempered with verjuice or vinegar or good wine; And if it is salted, with mustard. The four feet and the ears and the jowls with parsley and spices, tempered with vinegar. The offal of pork is good roasted with garlic or with verjuice. The spleen in brouet in pieces, with a little water in a pan, and then when it is cooked, pour off the water and keep it; then take the liver and bread and pepper and spices and grind them together without toasting the bread, and temper with the water it cooked in, then serve all in the manner that I have said to you, and take vinegar and mix with, the toasted bread well ground in a mortar.

For beef -- Fresh beef with white garlic; Salted with mustard. The numbles of beef, well larded, are good in pies.

For veal -- Roasted veal, the loin parboiled in water, and then lard and and eat with green garlic or pepper. And if you would like it minced, parboil it in water and then cut into pieces in a pan, and then fry the pieces in a pan in grease or bacon fat, and then put beaten eggs therein, and then sprinkle with pepper, then that is minced. And if otherwise wanted in a pie, parboil it in water and then lard it, slice into pieces and put it in a pie.

For sheep -- Fresh sheep, in winter and in summer, must be cooked with sage and hyssop and parsley, and eaten with green sauce; Salted with mustard. And which when roasting the flanks, can be eaten with the aforementioned sauce.

For kid and lamb -- Meats of kid and lamb are good roasted; But first you need to parboil them and then lard slightly. And they can be eaten with a sauce of sour pepper, cooked and tempered with verjuice or wild apple juice, or with black pepper.

Roasted piglet. But first you need to scald and strain the entrails and cook all together; and then boil eggs, the yolks very hard, and cook chestnuts in fire and May cheese in slices and pears of Saint Riulle or Quaillouel 2 cooked on coals. Then chop all together and sprinkle with ground cinnamon 3, pepper and ginger and other spices and salt, and put on one third of the piglet sugar, and divide into four parts. And it's best eaten as a stuffing.

For capons and hens -- Capons and hens are good roasted, with a sauce of wine in summer, in winter with aillie 4 sauce made of garlic and cinnamon and ginger, tempered with almond milk or sheep's milk. Again, cook hens with fresh herbs and salt. Again, capons and hens in brouet made of cinnamon and ginger and other spices, and add yolks of beaten eggs and then cut the meat into pieces and fry in grease. But before grind bread and the saffron and other spices, and the liver, and temper with broth, and strain through a towel, and put to boil, and beaten eggs and saffron and spices tempered with good wine.

To make false guernon -- If you want to make false guernon take the livers and the gizzards, then chop small, grind bread and temper with broth, and put to boil, and after add beaten egg yolks and saffron, temper with wine, and then fry, and add milk, and chop meat in the crest, and put to boil, and stir all day, and then add the eggs and saffron, and mix in a bowl, and add ground cinnamon, ginger and cloves thereon.

For geese -- Geese are good in summer with garlic, and in winter with hot pepper; And Salted in soup; and can be eaten with mustard.

Domestic drakes and ducks with hot pepper. Wild drakes and ducks are good with sage sauce and parsley and cinnamon and ginger, without pepper. Again, salted duck with mustard.

Wild birds, like cranes, grouse, herons, roasted whole, with the feet and the heads.

Moor hens, coots, noncelles, plovers roasted with hot pepper.

Partridges, turtledoves, wild hens, cormorants, all slightly larded, roasted, with a sauce of cinnamon and ginger, without pepper, tempered with wine. Again, partridges, turtledoves in pie. Wild hens, in September and October, with sour pepper.

All swans, peacocks. Firstly take out the blood by the heads all seen, after this cut thereunder the back near the shoulders and gut them, and then put them on a spit with the feet and the heads; Then grind saffron and white bread tempered with wine, and grind yolks of eggs and saffron, and paint on the birds with the feather, and cast with powder thereon, which is of all spices, strong zedoary and hart-wort. And when the swan and the peacock are cooked and pressed, then wrap them in a towel, and then take them to the tables after, and give to the lord the neck and head, and the wings and the thighs and everything else.

All rabbits and all hares are good in pies. Roast rabbits with pepper hot or sour, roasted with all the feet. No hare is good roasted, strong in summer. And then it's good in pies, slightly larded. Fresh venison, with hot pepper; Salted with mustard.

Roe Deer. The loin roasted or in pies, slightly larded, with hot pepper or with garlic sauce in winter, made of garlic and cinnamon and ginger, tempered with almond milk, -- the almonds tempered in warm water, -- and fried in grease or in bacon fat, and the sauce therein.

For white douchet -- If you want to make white douchet, take a hen and cook it in water, then skim off the crest, and take the white of the hen and grind well, then take yolks of the eggs cooked in fire and set to boil with a little amidon. Also it can be made with pike or perch. Then it will be fish.

For cominée of hens -- If you want to make cominée of hens, take the hens and cook in wine and in water, and make boil, and skim off the crest, and cut the hens, and after take yolks of eggs, beat them well and mix with broth and add cumin, and put all together, then you will have cominée.

To make white brouet of hens, put the hens to cook in wine and water, and take almonds, grind them and temper with the broth, then cook in a good pot, and cut the hens into pieces and fry them, then put everything together into the pot to boil; then take almonds and cloves and cinnamon and long pepper and orage and galingale and saffron and sugar, then temper with a little vinegar and put all together. Then you have a good brouet.

For a subtle English brouet -- If you want to make subtle English brouet, take hens and cook the livers, then take chestnuts then cut them from the hulls and grind together, then temper with the broth that the hens were cooked in, and add ginger, saffron and long pepper and mix with clear broth, then put together.

For a gravé of small birds -- If you want to make a gravé of small birds, put the birds to cook in a pot all covered with crisped bacon, and add wine and water and pepper and ginger, and keep well covered that steam doesn't escape that all will be cooked.

For blanc mengier -- If you want to make blanc mengier, take the wings and feet of hens and put to cook in water, and take a little rice and temper it with clear water, then the cook it over a small fire, and then shred the meat into small hairs and put it to cook with a little sugar. If you have no lac 5. And if you want, then put to cook rice along with the broth of the hen or with milk of almonds. Then it will not be reddened.

The start of the of saltwater and freshwater fish -- Sturgeon is a royal fish and should be cut into pieces, and then the pieces put onto a spit and all the others likewise. And cook it in water if you want to eat with hot pepper or with parsley, and with fennel and wine sour. The salted with mustard.

If you want to make a comminee of fish, take cumin and almonds, then grind them and temper with clear water and sieve them and put in with the fish.

If you want to make sarraginee, take eels, then scorch them; And then cut them into pieces, and salt them and fry together; Then take bread and sugar, and grind all together, and temper with wine and verjuice, and put all to boil with the eels; then take cinnamon and lavender and cloves, and grind them all together and temper with a little vinegar; Then put it with the eels and cover well and put over the fire.

For milk of Provence -- If you want to make milk of Provence, take almonds, then grind them and temper with wine and water, then take whole parsley and onions cut in rings and mix with eels, and fry all together; then take whole saffron and water and long pepper.

If you want to make pike galentine, take pepper and cinnamon and ginger, and grind all together and temper it with strong vinegar and cook your fish and put therein.

If you want to make lamprey galentine, take leavened bread and grind and put it to cook with the blood of the lampreys, and good white wine, and be leavened in the same good wine, and then add a great plenty of pepper and salt that it is enough; then take the lampreys and put them on a towel to cool, and Then take bread, grind it and temper with vinegar. And when you have done this, then strain it through a sieve, and then put it in a clean pan and make it boil and stir all day that it doesn't burn; then put it to cool and stir it well, and then take your ground ginger, cinnamon and cloves, then add nicely on your lampreys and cook, and add your bariz 6.

If you want to make fish jelly, break the back of the fish and cut it into pieces, that is to say: carp and tench, bream and turbot, and put to cook in good, strong wine; Then take cinnamon, ginger, long pepper, galingale, lavender and a little saffron; Then grind and put all together; And when you strain it of the fire, then in take out the fish in a bowl and pour thereon; and if you see that it is too thick, then sieve it and let it cool until the morning, and by then take it likewise like jelly.

If you want to make blanc mengier in cream, take rice and cook it in water, and puree it when it is cooked, and seal the pot, and dry it well; then grind it, temper with almond milk and stir all day; and then mix in a bowl and sprinkle with spices and cloves or with fried almonds.

If you want to make cream flans, take eels then remove the bones, when they are cooked; Then grind them well in a mortar, and add a little ginger and a little saffron and wine. And of that mixture make flans or tarts or ...

To make norse pies, take a bit of pike or other fish and boil it; then cut into pieces like dice, and add ginger and cinnamon, and temper with a little wine; Then put it in your pie. And make it small and fry in oil.

If you want to make pies which have the flavor of cheese, or cream flans, take the soft roe of carp or pike, and bread; Then grind all together and temper with almond milk. And if you see it is too white, then add a little saffron. And of this you can make your pies and cream flans, that will have the flavor of cheese.

Here are the lessons of the fish roe and other meats -- Fresh conger is good with green sauce made of sage and parsley and pepper and ginger, tempered with vinegar or verjuice.

Fresh salmon with hot pepper. Salted with mustard, in winter and in summer.

Pike with green sauce. Pike with galentine. Pike with red fish broth: firstly roast, and then in must or pear cider in a pan, and make it boil; and take powder of all manner of spices and bread, temper with the broth which is in the pan, and then add to the bowl, the fish therein.

Perch with wine sauce.

Eels in pies. Item, salted eels, cooked in water, with mustard. All freshwater fish which are cooked in water, are good with green sauce. Salted with mustard.

For bream cooked in water, with sour pepper of pepper, cinnamon and ginger, tempered with verjuice. And put with the meat of a fish on the fire in a pan in pieces.

Loach and chub with green sauce; Cooked and Fried, with mustard.

Scallops in gravy or cooked in water, with pepper and ginger.

Ray, dogfish, pike, brotele 7 with white garlic. Salted with mustard.

Smelt with sour pepper, made with ginger and cinnamon.

Bars 8 of sweet water roasted on the grill, a little fire underneath, that it doesn't burn on the grill, with verjuice. And if it is cooked in water, with green sauce is eaten.

Fresh mackerel is good in pies, sprinkled with a little pepper and a little ground spices and salt. Item, roasted fresh mackerel is good with cameline sauce, without garlic, with cinnamon and ginger, tempered with sour wine. That which is cooked in water, eat with a sauce made of pepper and cinnamon and ginger. Salted with mustard or a wine sauce.

Fresh cod should be cooked in well salted water and if you want to eat with white aillie of garlic and almonds, temper with vinegar and fry in oil. Salted with mustard.

Plaice, flounder, cooked in water, with a wine sauce. Item, plaice, flounder with a galentine of sage and parsley and cinnamon and ginger and other spices, tempered with vinegar.

Fresh whiting with garlic, bread and mixed with verjuice of grain. Salted with mustard.

Gurnard cooked in water with cameline sauce tempered with vinegar. Item, gurnard with hot pepper.

Herring fresh and powdered with ail 9. Herring of Gernemus with verjuice or with mustard. Fresh herring cooked in water with hot pepper.

White cuttlefish with aillie of vinegar. Item, cuttlefish in onion gravy, also fried in oil, with strained almonds and pepper all together.

Oysters in gravy, first cooked in water and onions, with pepper and saffron and with an aillie of almonds. Oysters again with salt and bread well leavened.

Put sturgeon and that which follows after conger. It is right.

Any idiot that can serve in good house, should have all of that which is in this roll, written in his heart or written below here. And which doesn't have it, can not serve well with thanks of his master.

Here ends the treaty of making and naming all beverages like wine, claret, murrey and many others, 10 and of naming and serving all meats by the many methods of many countries.

Translator's Notes:

1. I do not have a translation for "noncelle", though from context it is evidently some sort of game bird. This may be a transcription / copy error for "sorcell" (teal).

2. I do not have a translation for "quaillouel"

3. All instances of "cinnamon" were spelling variants of "canelle" in the original source, and are therefore assumed to be Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia).

4. The word "aillie" is particularly problematic. Modernly it would indicate a garlic sauce, but its use in this source is not consistent with that translation. Used as a verb it could also mean to mix or add a sauce, but again its use in this source is not consistent with that translation. I leave it here untranslated, as if it is the proper name of a category of admixtures which may or may not contain garlic.

5. Lac = a red colorant/pigment.

6. I do not have a translation for "bariz"

7. I do not have a translation for "brotele"

8. Bar = Galeichthys marinus, a fresh-water fish resembling a bass. "The Viandier of Taillevent", Terence Scully (trans.), ISBN: 0-77660174-1

9. While "ail" could be translated as "garlic", it does not match all the other occurrences of garlic in the original source ("aus"). Maybe this is meant to be ale?

10. The first part of this last paragraph suggests a copyist's error, since none of the recipes have anything to do with beverages.

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