Translation of Libro di cucina/ Libro per cuoco (14th/15th c.)  (Anonimo Veneziano)

Translated 2003 to January 2005 CE by Helewyse de Birkestad, OL  (MKA Louise Smithson) from the transcription of  Ludovico Frati (ed.): Libro di cucina del secolo XIV. Livorno 1899 prepared and made available online by Thomas Gloning.
Last updated March 28th 2005.

Thomas Glonings transcription in Italian can be found by clicking   here

You may use/ distribute this version for non-profit use only (scholarly, private use) provided that this header is included.  Contact me by email at helewyse@yahoo.com


Recipe numbering follows that given in the original.  Recipe titles are given in  English.

Items in brackets are most appropriate translation of literal translation to left or additional words added to make sense of the text. .

Items with question marks are guesses based on the most likely translation where I have been unable to find a modern equivalent.

* notes at the end of each recipe are personal observations or in many cases comments on word substitutions/translations.

If you find any mistakes or can give a translation for any of the untranslatable words, please contact me and I will make the appropriate correction and post a thank you on the page.

This translation has been polished.  Where there are still questions about translations and appropriate word substitutions the rationale has been indicated. The original rough draft can be found here.


Libro di cucina/ Libro per cuoco

Table of Contents

I. Amidono of starch
II. Ambroyno (sweet food)
III. "Agliata", roasted garlic sauce.
IV. Ambrosino good and perfect and such.
V. Blancmange
VI. Chickens with broth
VII. Good relish for chickens
VIII. Sauce thickened with eggs good with partridge
IX. Carmeline sauce for capon
X. Butter of fresh cheese, etc
XI Almond butter
XII. Broth of eggs pure, good and perfect
XIII Little broth for fish
XIV Ciuiro* (civet) or sauce black to ash gray for boar
XV Ciuiro/civet or relish for hind (deer, venison) etc.
XVI Ciuiro/civet for meat of roebuck or of hare
XVII Capons or hens stuffed
XVIII. Civet of hare or of other meat
XIX Lamb lungs etc.
XX Lungs of kid, etc.
XXI Compost good and perfect.
XXII Sprouts of life/health
XXIII Cisame (Sweet/sour dish) of whichever fish you want.
XXIV Maize dish (Frumenty) good and very useful.
XXV Mushrooms
XXVI Magnificent Imperial Fritters
XXVII  Elderflower fritters, etc.
XXVIII White Fritters
XXIV Apple fritters for lent.
XXX Jelly (aspic) of hens or of fish, called "peverada" (pepper dish) and good.
XXXI Aspic of whatever meat.
XXXII Aspic in another way.
XXXIII Common good fish aspic
XXXIV Perfectly good chopped/battered herbs, etc
XXXV Herbatella, a herb omelet, etc.
XXXVI Herb omelet in lent.
XXXVII Lean dish or dish with "enula"
XXXVIII Lasagne
XXXIX A perfect and good dish of apples
XL A white and rich "migliaciti" (cake)
XLI Cooked, perfected almond dish
XLII Mustard and good mustard
XLIII Meat (dish) of turnips
XLIV Malmoma
XLV Mortarolo (a ground/pasted) dish for twelve people.
XLVI Good and perfect mortadelle, etc. (cooked liver sausage)
XLVII Stuffed eggs
XLVIII Good and rich quail pastry
XLIX Hen pastry
L Pastry of young pigeon
LI Optimal pork pastry
LII Good pastry of kid
LIII Good and perfect hens with sumac
LIV Hens in white broth
LV Millet polenta with verjuice
LVI Good and perfect millet with meat
LVII Good stuffed hens
LVIII Marvelous and good walnut bread
LIX Genuine pepper sauce
LX Quenelles, that is many good ravioli
LXI A good way for rice
LXII Fried ravioli, etc.
LXIII Fantastic common ravioli with herbs
LXIV Ravioli in another way and called "licaproprii"
LXV Armored turnips
LXVI Good and perfectly optimal roast in sweet/sour sauce
LXVII Perfect strong sauce
LXVIII Sauce for Capons
LXIX White ginger sauce for capons
LXX Sour orange relish
LXXI Sambugado (elder flower flavored dish) that is milk with elder flowers
LXXII Perfect and fantastic Sambugado (elderflower scented dish) that one serves in platters
LXXIII Fine spices for all dishes (things)
LXXIV Sweet spices, enough for many good and fine things
LXXV Black and strong spices for many sauces.
LXXVI A most perfect quick stew.
LXXVII Stuffed shoulder of mutton.
LXXVIII   Perfect salted dish of eel.
LXXIX. Relish for any meat
LXXX. Relish for fish.
LXXXI. Green sauce for kid and other boiled meats.
LXXXII. A good sauce for mutton or kid.
LXXXIII. Relish of rue or of rocket
LXXXIV. Perfect relish of the Tartars.
LXXXV. Relish for boiled or roasted meat.
LXXXVI. Relish candied
LXXXVII.  Relish for crayfish or lobster.
LXXXVIII.  Saracen style sauce
LXXXIX. Relish for all fat meat.
XC.  Sauce for any meat
XCI. The best Carmeline sauce.
XCII. Sartramone (?) or sauce for any  meat.
XCIII. Sage dish
XCIV Fish tart
XCV. Herb tart.
XCVI. Tortellini of enula, etc.
XCVII. Fantastic crayfish or lobster tart
XCVIII Most perfect and good mushroom tart
XCIX Elder flower flavored tart
C Latticed tart for twelve people.
CI Spelt tart, etc.
CII Scallion or onion tart etc.
CIII Cheese and egg tart without lard
CIV A good ordinary tart
CV Garlic tart
CVI Milk tart
CVII Tart of dried gourd
CVIII Fresh bean tart
CIX Optimally good fresh fava bean tart
CX Good and optimal French tart
CXI Good and fantastic Manfreda tart
CXII Good parmesan tart
CXIII Hungarian tart for twelve people
CXIV Romanian tart
CXV Good tortellini made like white fritters for lent.
CXVI Most perfect good Lenten tortellini made like white fritters
CXVII Dish made with finely chopped ingredients
CXVIII Dish to make a good stomach (to settle the stomach or to stimulate the appetite)
CXIX A lemon flavored dish
CXX Cooked wine
CXXI Gourds
CXXII Fantastic chicken with fennel
CXXIII Chickens with fennel in another way.
CXXIV Very good chickens cooked like carp is cooked.
CXXV To make smoked yellow sausage
CXXVI Tart from Lavagna for twelve people
CXXVII To candy fresh almonds, peaches*, walnuts that are perfect, neither too hard nor too soft etc.
CXXVIII To make little cakes of Monaco
CXXIX To candy gourds in two ways.
CXXX To make a good and delicate dish of oranges
CXXXI To make a chopped orange dish in another way
CXXXII Candied "apio" and paradise apples that are ready immediately, and grated they can be made as you like.
CXXXIII To make a good and fantastic quince marmalade
CXXXIV To make a healthy and good dish of enula.
CXXV A good dish
 

Recipes and notes

I. Amidono of starch
If you want to make amidono for twelve people.  Take two pounds of almonds, one pound of amido (see note), half a pound of sugar, half a pound of peeled pine nuts and two ounces of cloves.  Peel and crush the almonds and soak in clean, boiled water, strain off the almond milk.  Set most of the almond milk to boil, reserving some to mix with and soften the starch.  When the almond milk boils pour into the starch mixture, mix well and return to the pan.  Bring back to the boil, while stirring, and cook until thick, add the sugar.  Pour into a serving dish, dust with sugar, cloves and pine nuts.  If you want to make for more or less persons use these ingredients in the same ratio.
* Amydone, amidon , amidum= Starch from wheat or rye. Basically, wheat (or rye, rice) is soaked in water for several days; the water must be changed several times. Then the wheat is pounded and put into water again. This mash is filtered somehow and dried in the sun. The result seems to be starch that must be powdered again before it is put to use.
Taken from Cindy Renfrews glossary

II. Ambroyno (sweet food)
To make ambroyno, take a chicken and chop into serving size pieces (thighs, drumsticks and four breast pieces, bone in), mince onions finely and fry in clean lard.  Add to the pan sweet and strong spices, and the following spices cut up small: ginger, cloves and grains of paradise.  Continue to fry the mixture.  Grind (see note) whole un-peeled almonds, with verjuice and saffron.  When the hen is cooked pour the almond mixture over and heat through.  For three chickens you would use a pound of almonds.
*  There is some question as to whether it is intended for you to pour ground almonds over the dish or almond milk.  The word used in the original Italian version is maxenare.  This could be translated as macerare, to macerate or macinare, to grind.  In several other recipes following the instruction to maxenare the almonds the instruction to temper them with clear water and strain is then given, clearly indicating almond milk.  In others no such instructions are given yet the recipe then asks you to add the milk to the dish, indicating that maxenare means to macerate the almonds and extract almond milk.  Still other recipes use maxenare in relation to the grinding of spices or other items.  Given this confusion it may be necessary to use a certain amount of discretion.

III. "Agliata", roasted garlic sauce.
Agliata to serve with every meat.  Take a bulb of garlic and roast it under the coals (substitute an oven in the current middle ages).  Grind the roasted garlic and mix with ground raw garlic, bread crumbs and sweet spices.  Mix with broth, put into a pan and let it boil a little before serving warm.

IV. Ambrosino good and perfect and such.
If you want to make ambrosino for twelve people take 6 lean capons, 2 pounds of almonds, a pound of currants, 1 pound of dates and a pound of prunes (*1).  Also take 1½ of ginger (no measure is given in the original but ounces seem more likely than pounds), half a whole nutmeg, cloves, saffron and half a pound of sweet spices.  Take the capons and cut into seven portions each and fry in the clean lard in a pan.  When the capons are well fried add the saffron rubbed, the nutmeg that has been chopped finely, the cinnamon broken into pieces, whole cloves, whole peeled almonds, dates, currants and prunes (*2).  Add a large amount of sweet spices and let it cook a little longer.  When it is cooked reduce the heat or remove from the flame.  Take unskinned almonds, grind (see note) and distemper with a little vinegar, strain the almonds and add the almond milk to the dish, and add to the sauce spices and enough saffron.  This dish should be sharp and sweet and red in color.  Serve in a bowl with powdered spices over it.

*1 - Brognole is translated in Florio as any prune or damson plum, given the context it is most likely to indicate prunes.
*2 Ė The ingredient list for this recipe lists currants and prunes along with the dates.  However, there is no mention of them in the method.  Common sense seems to indicate that the dried fruit is added to the dish at the same point in the cooking process.

V. Blancmange.
If you want to make blancmange for twelve people, take four pounds of almonds, one pound of rice, four hens (chickens), two pounds of grease (lard), a pound and a half of sugar and half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves.  Peel the almonds, reserve some whole, grind the remainder and prepare almond milk by soaking with clean water and straining.  Take rice that has been hulled, picked over, washed with hot water and dried and grind to a fine powder and strain.  Take the chickens that have been cut into pieces and boil them a little.  Shred the cooked chicken meat finely and fry gently in the grease.  Meanwhile put most of the almond milk in a pan and bring to a boil.  Mix the reserved, cold, almond milk with the rice flour and allow it soak.  When the almond milk boils mix it with the soaked rice flour and return to the pan.  Boil the rice flour and almond milk together until it thickens, immediately add the shredded fried chicken and the fat from the pan.  Mix this mixture frequently to prevent burning and sticking and add the sugar.  When the dish is cooked pour into a bowl to serve.  Dress the dish with rosewater, sugar, the reserved almonds that have been fried and cloves.  This dish should be very white like snow and potent with spices.

VI. Chickens with broth
If you want to make chickens with broth.  Take chickens and let them cook in water.  Take skinned almonds, grind and mix with the chicken broth (*) and mix in rose water and verjuice.  Take cinnamon, ginger and cloves, grind half and chop half of each spice.  Add these spices to the almond broth and boil everything together.  To serve, put the chickens in the broth and make sure that everything is hot.  When you serve put sugar over the bowl and it will be a good dish.

* There is no indication in the text that the ground almonds and chicken broth are strained to make almond milk.  Hence you may be leaving the ground almonds in the broth.

VII. Good relish for chickens.
To give a good flavor to chickens.  Take pomegranates and squeeze out the juice.  Put into the pomegranate juice good sweet spices.  If it seems too strong, mix dill/anise ground (*), or rose water.  Alternatively use the juice of grated sour apples and juice of good sweet grapes mixed together with enough sweet spices.  If you do not have grapes put in a little honey and let it boil.  The spices should taste raw, not cooked, donít allow it to cook too much or the sauce will spoil.

* Anexo could be either aneto Ė dill or anice/anace/anacio Ė aniseed, but is most likely calling for the use of aniseed based on two observations.  The recipe calls for good sweet spices, which applies more to aniseed than dill, and secondly I have seen little or no use of dill in period Italian recipes but a great deal of use of aniseed.

VIII. Sauce thickened with eggs good with partridge
To make a sauce thickened with eggs for partridge.  Take almond milk, egg yolks, saffron, verjuice and sweet spices.  Mix all together and heat gently until the mixture thickens and it will be good.

IX. Carmeline sauce for capon
If you want to make carmeline sauce with capons for 12 people take six fat capons and three pounds of almonds.  Grind together two ounces of fine spices, long pepper and nutmeg.  Boil the capons until cooked and chill them.  Peel, wash and grind the almonds, then temper the ground almonds with the broth from the capons (strain off the almond milk).  Set this (almond milk) to boil with a little sharp wine and verjuice, add enough of the ground spices when this sauce has boiled and take from the fire.  Serve the sauce and the capons in separate dishes.  Sprinkle the best spices that you have over the sauce in the serving bowl.

X. Butter of fresh cheese, etc.
If you want to make butter from fresh cheese to make other dishes.  Take six fresh cheeses and mash them very well.  When they are mashed temper with clear cold water.  The fat will rise to the surface, scrape it off with a knife, and then put it into whatever dish that you would like, and in tarts if you want and it will be good.

XI Almond butter
If you want to make butter of almond fat to make dishes for Friday or for lent take three pounds of almonds to make a tart or whatever dish that you want for 12 persons.  And this butter you can use to flavor tartare (a sort of pie made of soaked bread, almonds and sugar) or other pies.  For when one does not eat meat, take the almonds peel, wash grind well and stamp with clear water.  And when it (the almond milk) has been well strained and pressed put this milk of almonds to boil.  When it has well boiled pour it over a white cloth (that is presumably suspended to allow liquid to drain away).  When the water has strained below take good knife and scrape (the butter) from the cloth and put it on the taiero (trencher see note) and use the butter in whatever dish you want.

* taiero. - Tagliare is to cut, tovalia is a towel.  It could actually be trencher or plate which in Italian is taglière.

XII Broth of eggs pure, good and perfect
If you want to make a pure broth take eggs and beat them and add verjuice and cold water and enough salt.  Take broth that you have cooked your meat or fish or whatever in, and put it in a pan enough that is large enough and can be stirred easily and put it gentle heat from the coals, and add the beaten eggs and mix well so that it does not open (curdle), and then pour into a serving dish and dust with good spices.

XIII Little broth for fish
Take the fish and boil it, then take parsley and walnuts and the crumb of bread and grind these all together, and take sweet and strong spices and let it boil altogether (in the fish broth) and put it over the fish and it is good, perfect etc.

XIV Ciuiro* (civet) or sauce black to ash gray for boar
If you want to make a black sauce, take meat that is well roasted/cooked and beat it to a paste in a mortar, and take the middle (no crusts) of bread and toast until it is black.  Soak this toasted bread in vinegar, break it up and sieve it well and mix it with the shredded meat.  Add long pepper, grains of paradise and ginger and grind these three things to a smooth paste.  Put the above meat paste a sauce made with vinegar and with lean broth of the meat, and boil this stew/sauce in a pan.   This sauce should be black and strong with spices and sharp with vinegar.

* Ciuiro is actually a term for a specific style of stew, essentially a civet and may be translated as such.

XV Ciuiro/civet or relish for hind (deer, venison) etc.
If you want to make meat of hind boiled, you can make the stew of the meat as in the previous recipe and it is good.

XVI Ciuiro/civet for meat of roebuck or of hare
Boil or roast the meat for the best (result) that you want, etc.  Make it in the same way as that given above for the boar.  And if you put this dish hot you want to put it in the sauce and if you want it cold mix them (together without heating).

XVII Capons or hens stuffed
If you want to make two capons for 12 persons.  Take two fresh cheeses and 12 eggs and take two ounces of sweet spices, half a pound of fresh lard and take the capons well washed and skinned and let them boil.  When they are well cooked, strip all (of the flesh off) and pull out the bones and reserve.  And beat the meat with some leaves of parsley, and mint and marjoram, and of the said spices, and the cheese that has been well mixed to a paste, and enough of the eggs (to bind the paste).  Of these things make a good batter, fine and soft and well yellow, and good presence of spices.  Take chopped (broken up) these bones and redress each one for it is according that it nails in part of this batter (reform the meat paste around the bones).  And put each in rashers of pork and fry in lard.  And when they are fried, powder with the said spices.  Take strained egg yolks and whites and spices and saffron, temper with juice of grapes crushed or with verjuice or with the capon broth, and of this stuff make a good sauce, and put it to boil.  Then you want to put these bones stuffed in this boiling broth, when it is cooked serve it in a bowl and the capons in platters.  This dish should  be a strong yellow (color) and sour with verjuice.  If you want to make it for more persons or for less take the things of this measure by same proportion.

*  the first of several complex recipes. The capons are cooked, mashed, made into a paste with herbs and spices, reformed around the bones (which must be the leg bones), wrapped in rashers and fried in lard.  These fritters are then finished in a broth made of eggs, spices and a liquid (verjuice, grape juice or stock).  The meat is served on a platter and the sauce in a bowl separately.

XVIII. Civet of hare or of other meat.
If you want a good roast, take the hare or other meat that has been well washed and cut it into pieces and put them to cook, take bread and toast till it is black, and put it to soak in vinegar, then take onions and grate well like cheese, then take the meat and the onions and fry well in clean lard, take its liver and mix well together the bread and the stuff (liver) and temper with verjuice and with honey, or with cooked grape must *, and add the spices and boil everything together.  When it is well boiled put it to chill and it will be good and perfect.

* cocto Ė can be translated as mosto cotto, or cooked grape must.  This ingredient can be found in some gourmet stores often called vin cotto.  You can use verjuice + honey or vincotto to give you a sweet/acid blend.

XIX Lamb lungs etc.
If you want to cook lungs of lamb, take the lungs and boil them whole.  Then cut them into thin slices, and make sure that each one does not come apart from the other (i.e. do not slice all the way through.  Then take good herbs and egg yolks and beat them together and fry them in good strained lard.  When the eggs are fried, mix sweet and strong spices and powder inside the lungs.  Then put the herb/egg mixture into the lungs between each slice.  Wrap the whole thing in a caul or membrane, and put it into a "rocha di cana fessa"* and let it cook, and it will be good to eat.

* No accurate translation of "rocha di cana fessa" could be found or inferred from similar words.  From examination of close words it may be possible to guess at some kind of hollow stone or possibly ceramic vessel.  But this is pure conjecture.  Close words are:
Rócca Ė distaff, name also given to a kind of lamp with a high stand and to a champagne glass.
Ròcca Ė word of uncertain origin meaning, fort, tower, chimney-pot, rock, part of the temporal bone.
Ròccia - rock
Cana Ė hoariness
Canna Ė botanical term for cane, pipe or straw, the hollow in any round thing
Fesso Ė crack, from fendere

XX Lungs of kid, etc.
And if you want to cook entire lungs of kid, take the lungs and boil them.  Then beat them with a mallet.  Then take good herbs and beaten egg yolks and fry them in lard and put them into the (beaten) lungs, and grind everything together.  Add half a fresh cheese and fine spices and three eggs, and mix everything together.  Then one encloses it well in a caul or net and then puts this thing into a pan (to fry) and it is good.

XXI Compost good and perfect.
If you want to make compost, take sumac or dried grapes and aniseed, coriander and tear into this a little ginger.  Add vinegar and mix everything together well making sure to add enough saffron.  Then take turnips or pears and herbs and break them up gently and let them boil for a little while, then put the relish (vinegar and spices etc) over (the cooked pears or turnips).

XXII Sprouts of life/health
If you want to make sprouts of life, take the rounded cabbage sprouts and boil them for a little while.  When they are a par-boiled take them off the heat and strain away all the water.  And then fry them well in plenty of fat.  Take verjuice, parsley, water, spices and salt and mix them well together before putting them on top (of the sprouts), and let them boil well together.  Then take a little marjoram, temper it with water and put it above (the dish) and it will be good.

XXIII Cisame (Sweet/sour dish) of whichever fish you want.
Take the fish and fry it.  Take onions which have been boiled a little and chopped finely, and fry them well.  Then take vinegar and water and whole peeled almonds, currants, strong spices and a little honey and put everything to boil together (with the onions) and put it above the (fried) fish.

XXIV Maize dish (Frumenty) good and very useful.
If you want to make frumenty, take the wheat berries, and grind/beat it well until the husk lifts, then wash it well.  Put it to boil in water, but donít boil it too much, then pour away the water.  Then add inside the fat of whichever animal you wish, and you want to make sure that you donít add too much.  Add sweet and strong spices, and saffron, and if you donít have wheat then you can take rice, and it will be good.

XXV Mushrooms
If you want to make mushrooms, take dried mushrooms and put them to soak in hot water and wash them well.  Then boil them a little and make them cook how you want and prefer.  Then take onions and herbs and season with strong and sweet spices, and then add the mushrooms and fry everything together.  Take unpeeled almonds and grind them and then put on top of the mushroom dish, alternatively you can add verjuice and it needs to be served hot.

XXVI Magnificent Imperial Fritters
If you want to make Imperial fritters, take the whites of eggs and slices of fresh cheese.  Beat them (the cheese) with the white of the egg, and add a little bit of wheat flour and whole peeled pine nuts.  Take a frying pan with plenty of grease (oil) and put it to boil (heat) then make the fritters (fry in the fat).  When they are cooked sprinkle them with plenty of sugar and keep them hot, etc.

XXVII  Elderflower fritters, etc.
Take elder flowers and put them to soak in water and let them become very soft, then take out the flowers and grind them well.  Add a little bit of wheat flour and temper with eggs and with the milk in which you soaked the flowers.  Then have a frying pan with enough oil inside and fry them.  When they are cooked cover them with a trivet (to keep in the heat) and they are good.

XXVIII White Fritters
To make white fritters.  Take almond milk and leaven (yeast) add flour and blend them together and leave them to raise, then make the fritters.  When they are cooked powder with sugar and they are good.

XXIV Apple fritters for lent.
Take apples and peel them, then cut in the way of the host (thin circular slices).  Make a batter of flour with saffron (and presumably water), and add currants, and put the apples in this batter; then fry them in sufficient oil for each.  Powder with sugar when they are cooked, etc.

XXX Jelly (aspic) of hens or of fish, called "peverada" (pepper dish) and good.
If you want to make hens or fish in aspic, take the hens and make them boil until cooked and then fry them.  Take toasted bread and put it to soak in water, add currants and peeled almonds and paste all this together, tempering the mixture with mature wine and with vinegar.  Add to the bread mixture all the best spices that you might have powdered and boil this together in the fat in which you fried the hen.  And when it has boiled serve it above the hen which has been well fried.

XXXI Aspic of whatever meat.
If you want to make a good aspic of every meat: from boar meat take the ears and the feat and every thing, and capons, and partridge, and thrush and hair, and roebuck (venison) and pheasant.  Take these things and put them to the fire in liquid which is part water and part vinegar.  When they are boiled and the liquid has been well skimmed add mixed spices, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, and saffron that have not been ground together.  Adding as much of these things (spices) as is necessary according to the amount of meat.  When the meat is cooked enough remove it (from the broth) until what remains is the ears or feat because they have little substance.  When all these things have been pulled out (of the broth) powder all the meat with spices.  Take the aspic from the fire and let it rest.  Take saffron and temper it with the gelatin broth.  Arrange the meat into whichever vessel you want, which has been lined with laurel (bay) leaves, and put into it the jelly, and strain the jelly and the saffron through a sieve.  When it (the jelly broth) has been strained over the meat, take sweet spices and strain with (more of) the same jelly and put it above, and it should be nice and red.  When you are boiling the meats add salt when at whichever point you wish.  And it will be good and a good jelly.

XXXII Aspic in another way.
If you want to make aspic, take a weight of cinnamon, an ounce of ginger, an ounce of long pepper, half a quarter (of an ounce) of cardamom, a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, half a quarter (of an ounce) of currants, and half a quarter of an ounce of nutmeg and grind all these things together.  Then take bread and cut off the crust (keep the crumb), take large hazelnuts which have been toasted in live coals and mix all these things (spices, bread and nuts) together.  Temper the mixture with fine white vinegar, then put this sauce to boil together.  This is good with trout and lamprey and with every maritime fish, also with meat, and it is good with capons and hens, etc.

XXXIII Common good fish aspic
To make aspic of fish for 12 people.  Take three large tench, two ounces of strong and sweet spices together and half a quarter (of an ounce) of saffron for this.  Wash the fish well and put it in the sun for a little while (to dry?), then put it to boil in part water, part vinegar.  When it is well boiled the first things that you add are the said spices and saffron.  Boil everything well closed and very slowly.  When it is cooked pull it (the fish) out and put it to cool.  Have enough laurel (bay) leaves, well washed and powdered with the said spices.  Then put the fish into a vessel, and let the jelly rest.  You can either boil it with saffron or not.  When it (the jelly) is chilled and a little set pour it over the fish, and add enough spices and it is done, etc.

XXXIV Perfectly good chopped/battered herbs, etc.
If you want to make perfect and good chopped herbs *.  Take peeled almonds, grind them and strain them (the milk), and take two ounces of rice which has been ground to flour.  And also take the breast of a capon (cooked) and pull it into filaments.  Mix the rice flour with the almond milk and put it to boil and add the filaments of capon flesh, and let it boil well.  And when you are ready to serve it up, put sugar above it in the bowl and powder with enough spices.  And if you donít have rice then add enough almonds that it is good and thick, etc.

 * - There may have been a copying error in this document's past, there probably was a recipe for chopped/battered herbs, unfortunately it was a recipe for blancmange which was actually copied here.

XXXV Herbatella, a herb omelet, etc.
If you want to make a herb dish cooked in a frying pan.  Take mint, sage, parsley, marjoram and every good herb that you may have.  Grind everything together in a mortar with lard and temper with eggs, and cook it thus in a frying pan with fat.

XXXVI Herb omelet in lent.
If you want to make a herb omelet for lent with oil.  Take the herbs, that is spinach, beet (leaves, or swiss chard), parsley, mint and marjoram, a little peeled (stems removed) and well washed and put them to boil.  When they are almost cooked strain out the water and then squeeze it out with your hands, then chop them with a knife, and beat them with a mallet.  Then put them in a pottery pan (pignata) and fry them with oil and with as much salt as is enough.  Then put a little of the boiling water above, and close the vessel and see that it is well closed, and pull the pan to the back (of the fire) and let it rest.  When it is ready to go to the table dish it up and powder with spices above.

XXXVII Lean dish or dish with "enula"
Take elecampane (Inula helenium, relative of chicory) peel it and then grind it with raw pork belly, add fresh cheese and temper with eggs.  Make a (pie) crust, and put it (the filling) into the pan (pie case) and put some strained grease (oil or lard) and put it to cook (in an oven).

XXXVIII Lasagne
If you want to make lasagne in lent, take the lasagne (wide pasta noodles) and put them to cook (in water and salt).  Take peeled walnuts and beat and grind them well.  Put them between the lasagna (in layers), and guard from smoke (while reheating).  And when they go to the table dress them with a dusting of spices and with sugar.

XXXIX A perfect and good dish of apples
Take apples, peel them, cut them into quarters and put them to boil; when they are nearly cooked pour out the water.  Then add into them the fat of whichever meat that you choose (or have on hand) and make them in the same way that you make gourds.  Add good sweet spices and beaten eggs as you wish.

XL A white and rich "migliaciti" (cake)
If you want to make white cake in the best way that you can for 12 persons.  Take enough leaven (fermenting bread dough) that is (for) about a bread and a half, take water that is a little hot and mix it with the leaven so that it makes strings (breaks up).  Take four fresh, good fat cheeses, ten eggs, two pounds of fresh lard that has been well rendered with little smoke and well strained.  And when the leaven is well working put it above flour in quantities of about a dish (scudella pizola a dish of a specific and constant size), and put in a little water, and put in the chopped cheese (one of the three) and add the eggs that you have.  Make this batter/dough soft and tender, and put it into a hot but not too hot "testo" (pie dish designed to cook pies on the fire) which has been well greased.  And scatter above the two cheeses that you have chopped well, and above it add the hot strained lard that you have, and put it to cook.  And if you want to make for more persons or for less take the ingredients in the same way.

XLI Cooked, perfected almond dish
If you want to make cooked almond dish for 12 people.  Take three pounds of almonds, and a half a pound of sugar.  Peel and wash the almonds well, grind them and then mix with some clean, strained water.  Put them (ground almonds and water) to boil in a pan, which is big enough to allow you to stir well (assuming the cooking almonds will need frequent stirring to avoid scorching).  Serve on the plate with sugar.  And if you want to make this for more or less people take these things (ingredients) in the same proportion.

XLII Mustard and good mustard
If you want to make mustard, take the hot fat which has fallen from a roasted capon or other meat.  Take mustard seeds and grind them well, when they are well (finely) ground put them to soak in well boiled water.  Then take vin cotto* and mix everything (including the fat) and let it boil a little together, etc.
For another way to make a delicate mustard.  Take split (chopped) mustard seeds and wash them well with boiling water and temper (mix) them with vin cotto and add sugar, and powder with (ground) cloves, etc.

* Vin cotto Ė this reduced grape must syrup can be found in speciality gourmet stores, sold as mosto cotto, saba or cooked wine.  It has a sweet, tangy grape flavor.

XLIII Meat (dish) of turnips
Take turnips with small leaves and put them to boil.  When they are just about cooked pour away the water and put in enough (plenty) of grated cheese and let them boil (cook) together.  When they are cooked and you are ready to serve them put as much of that same cheese over the plate.

XLIV Malmoma *
If you want to make malmoma for 12 people.  Take the things in the same way that one takes to make blancmange, except that the dish should be very yellow and sour with (the juice from) bitter oranges or lemons.  And with all those things that one finds in blancmange and for the same amount of persons similarly.

* - there is no accurate translation for the title of this dish.  It is a variant of blancmange, where the dish is made yellow (presumably with saffron) and flavored strongly with the acid juice of bitter oranges and lemons.  For blancmange see recipe # V.

XLV Mortarolo (a ground/pasted) dish for twelve people.
If you want to make a "mortarolo" for twelve people.  Take six hens, 4 fresh strained cheese, eighteen eggs, half a pound of almonds, one (pound) of dates, half an ounce of whole ginger, a half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves and three ounces of pine nuts.  Make half a pound of sweet spices powdered.  [Dish one] Take a pork belly and let it boil until it is well cooked.  Take the cheese that you have, some of the spices, a quantity of parsley, mint and sage and of these things make a good chopped mixture (with the pork).  And when you have a good chopped mix use it to constitute the middle of either "tortelli" (tortellini) or "rafioli" (ravioli) *1.  Fry them (tortelli or ravioli) in good fresh strained lard, and when they are fried powder them with spices.  [Dish 2] Take the hens and chop them up and fry them in a frying pan, adding enough of the previously mentioned spices.  When they have fried a good bit take the peeled whole almonds and put them above the frying (chicken) and put above (into the frying pan) enough water that they can cook completely (to cover).  [Dish 3] Take the dates and pull forward the nuts, that is to say the pits within (the date) and wash them well.  Then stuff them well with chopped ginger and cinnamon and cloves and then the dates are done.  Take the mixtures that you have, the hen [dish 2], and the ravioli and tortelli [dish 1] and the dates [dish 3] and the peeled pine nuts, and well washed currants.  Have a pie pan and put a good crust on the bottom and another in half (at the top, dividing the pie into two halves?) and all these said things should be put into it (the pie dish) in layers and put the crust above and grease it and dress it (the pastry lid) above with a little good lard that has been strained.  Put the pie to cook with a little heat above with a hot "testo" *2 and make sure that it gets little smoke.  This dish should be yellow and very strong with spices.  To make it for more or less people take these same things in the same proportions, etc.

To clarify this complicated multistage dish the dishes within the recipe have been distinguished.
*1 - the distinction between tortellini and ravioli in modern Italian cuisine is merely one of shape, both indicate a filled pasta dish, one circular, one square.  However, in medieval and renaissance Italy the difference was more profound.  References to tortelli or tortellini are almost exclusively reserved for descriptions of a filling wrapped in a pastry of some form which is then boiled or fried.  While ravioli are unwrapped portions of stuffing, something more akin to a quenelle.  The filling might be rolled briefly in flour prior to frying or boiling but the filling was not encased in a pasta layer.
*2 - A testo is a clay or metal lid which is designed to be placed over pie dishes resting over coals in the fire.  The lid is then loaded up with hot coals, providing oven like baking in the coals of a fire.  A similar cooking technique used now is the Dutch oven.

XLVI Good and perfect mortadelle, etc. (cooked liver sausage)
If you want to make mortadelle, take a pork liver and the intestinal caul or casing.  Take the liver and let it boil, when it is cooked pull it out of the water.  Take good herbs, pepper, eggs, cheese and sufficient salt.  Take the liver and these things and mix/grind them together in a mortar until they are well pasted.  Temper (the mixture) with eggs and a little bit of the cooking water (left) from the liver.  Then take the caul and make the mortadelle (type of rolled sausages or faggots).  And when they (the faggots) are made fry them in good strained grease.  When they are fried send them hot to the table.

XLVII Stuffed eggs
If you want to make stuffed eggs.  Take the eggs and put them to boil and make sure that they are hard cooked.  When they are cooked pull them out (of the hot water) and put them in cold water.  Peel and slice (the eggs) in half and remove the yolk (reserve).  Take the fattest sweetest cheese that you have.  Take the best herbs that you have, peel them (from the stalk) wash and grind them together in a mortar.  When they (the herbs) are well ground take the egg yolks, the cheese and spices and put them in the mortar with the good herbs.  Grind all these things together to make a fine paste and temper (mix) with raw eggs until it is good (has the right consistency).  Meanwhile put a frying pan over the fire.  Take the egg halves and stuff with the paste (of egg yolks and cheese) and put them to cook (in the frying pan).  When they are cooked remove from the pan and powder them with sugar before serving them hot to the table.  And if you want to serve them savory take them (without sugaring them), etc.

XLVIII Good and rich quail pastry
Take the quail and chop it in half.  Make a (pie) crust (lining a pie plate) and put into it (the chopped quail) pine nuts, ground nutmeg and pieces of lard and then cover it (with more pastry crust).  (Cook the pie) and when it is cooked add (into the pie) muscatel wine and make it boil (continue cooking for a little while).

XLIX Hen pastry
Hen pastry.  Take the hens and chop them up.  Make the pastry crust (line a pie pan) and put inside the hen pieces and add spices and dried currants and pieces of fresh pork fat.  (Cover the pie with another pastry layer and bake in an oven or testo).  And when it is cooked one should have verjuice and eggs beaten together and put this inside the pastry and let it boil a little (continue cooking in the oven).

L Pastry of young pigeon
Take the young pigeons and boil them, then either chop them up or leave them whole as you want.  Make the crust of a pastry (line a pie plate) and put inside the pigeons and sweet spices, pine nuts, slices of lard and sour wine.  When it is time put it (the pie) to cook, and when it is cooked add to the inside verjuice and it is good and perfect.

LI Optimal pork pastry
Take the meat (pork) and chop it finely, and make the crust (line a pie plate with pastry) and put this meat inside mixed with finely chopped onions and powdered ginger.  (cover pie with pastry and bake) When it is cooked, add to the inside a mixture of vinegar, sugar and a little water, boil it (continue cooking), etc.

LII Good pastry of kid
To make a pie of kid meat.  Take the meat and shop it finely and make the crust (line a pie plate with pastry) and put the meat inside the pie with powdered cinnamon and slices of fresh pork fat.  (cover with pastry lid and bake) when it is cooked add broth and rose water and let them boil together (finish cooking in oven).

LIII Good and perfect hens with sumac
If you want to make hens with sumac for twelve people.  Take twelve hens, two pounds of almonds, one ounce between cinnamon and ginger, sloes (sosine *), half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, half a pound of sloes and a pound of sumac.  Take the hens and put them to fry whole in melted pork fat.  And when they are well fried add sweet spices and whole cinnamon, cloves and ginger and let them fry together.  Then add a little bit of water.  Take the well cleaned sumac and put to soak in fine vinegar.  Wash the almonds, grind and mix with water.  Take the sumac and blend (grind) it well with the vinegar in which it was soaking.  When the hens are cooked with the other things, add into it (the pan) well washed sloes.  Take the sumac and strain it, and do the same for the almonds and throw away the remaining solids.  And add these (two liquids one from the sumac the other from the almonds) into (the pan) with the chicken.  And let them boil together with the addition of sweet spices, water and salt.  This dish should be very strong with sumac, and with spices and with cinnamon, and sour because of the vinegar and sumac.  When it is well boiled together take it back (of the heat) for serving.  And put the hens under the sauce, and donít add anything else to the dish.  If you want to make it with chopped chickens take the ingredients in the same respect.

* - sosine is translated in Florio as a sloe or skeg.  Some form of dried fruit appears to be appropriate.  I am unsure if this is the same fruit that in later period texts is called Lazzarole, lazzerolo and azzerolo.  Fruit of the azarole cherry or Neapolitan medlar, which is really a species of hawthorn, Crataegus azarolus, also termed Pomo imperiale.
The sosine are mentioned twice, first in the middle of the spices where no amount is given and then an item later we are told to take half a pound of sloes.  This most likely is the result of scribal error, only one fruit is mentioned throughout.

LIV Hens in white broth
If you want to make hens in white broth for twelve people.  Take as many hens as you think enough, up to eight, two and a half pounds of almonds, one and a half ounces of ground white ginger, half a pound of sugar, and a pound and a half of fresh pig abdominal fat.  Take the hens and boil them, when they are boiled take a quantity of the pork fat and fry them (in this).  When they are fried powder them with ground ginger, sugar, cinnamon, cloves and a little bit of verjuice, and rosewater to taste.  Let them boil for a little while then take them off (the heat) to serve.  And put the hens in the broth.  And when they go to the table serve the hens sliced, and the dish should be both sweet and sour.

LV Millet polenta* with verjuice
If you want to make a millet polenta with verjuice.  Take millet, which has been washed free of the husk, peeled and ground.  Take two pounds of peeled ground almonds which have been tempered/mixed with clear water (and the almond milk strained off).  Take three geese and put them to roast.  Put (one half of) the almond milk on the fire, mix the remainder with the ground millet, then add to the pan and allow to cook.  When it is well cooked take the goose grease and mix it into the polenta, or use any other fresh fat that you have from pork, and add a quantity of sugar and sufficient salt (to season to taste).  This dish should be as white as possible.  It should be served in a dish with sugar dusted on top, and the sliced geese served carved with another sauce.  And it (the sauce) should be made as is said (here).  Take the liver of the geese and egg yolks and boil them together, and when they are cooked grind them in a mortar with fine, good spices, temper/mix them with the cooking water and with a little bit of vinegar and verjuice, and cook, this sauce should be a camel/beige color.

*Polenta was not a dish invented by the Italians following the arrival of maize/corn from the new world in the 17th century.  There are several recipes, both in this and other cookbooks, where a ground starchy grain (wheat, millet, barley) is cooked to a thick paste with broth/liquid and then served with meats.  The introduction of the high yielding corn plant to Italy merely provided a new grain with which to make this ages old Italian staple.

LVI Good and perfect millet with meat
If you want to make millet with meat for twenty people.  Take eight pounds of good pork loin and put it to boil.  When it is boiled chop it well and put it in a pignata* (stew pot).  Take thirty six egg yolks and four fresh cheeses, enough parsley juice, sweet and strong spices and saffron.  And these things should be beaten together and put into the stew pot, and with this the millet and the ground pork and cooked together.  This dish should be yellow, and to serve on the plate dust with spices above.  And if you want to make it for less or for more take these same things in the same proportion.

*pignatta Ė is a specially shaped stew pot, usually made of clay, perfect for slow gentle cooking.

LVII Good stuffed hens
If you want to make stuffed hens for 12 people.  Take the hens, kill them, then pluck them and take out the innards.  Then take a pound of peeled, ground and strained almonds (make almond milk), take in total eight strained cheeses, good and sweet and twelve eggs. Take parsley and mint and other good herbs, wash them well and grind/paste them well with the cheese and three ounces of spices without saffron.  Take the herbs and the cheese and the eggs together and make a paste and temper it with the almond milk and make a batter in the same way that one makes for fritters.  Then take the hen, well washed and well peeled and stuff this between the skin and the meat and within, and then one should seal it well so that the stuffing cannot escape and it will be good.

* There is no mention of cooking method with this dish, however, one has to assume that at this point the hen is roasted, presumably on a spit.

LVIII Marvelous and good walnut bread
If you want to make a bread of walnuts.  Take walnuts and peel and grind them, and take good herbs, a little grated suet, sweet and strong spices and a little sugar.  Put these in a mortar with the walnuts and make a paste.  Then take wheat flour and make a sheet in the way (that one makes) lasagna, large and wide and thin.  Put this (nut) paste within and knead all this together in the same way that one makes bread.  Take the dough, when it has become soft like a cake, and put it to cook in the oven, and when it is cooked pull it out and let it cool.

LIX Genuine pepper sauce
If you want to make a pepper sauce for any meat or for fish, take white flour and apple vinegar and temper (mix) it well to a thin paste, adding the broth of the meat, or fish if it is a lean day, and put it to boil with a large amount of spices, that is enough, and if you want it to be yellow add saffron, and if you want it white, donít add it (the saffron).

LX Quenelles, that is many good ravioli
If you want to make quenelles, take peeled almonds grind them and add sugar, and if it is a meat day add it (meat) and mix it well with the almonds.  Then make them in the way of ravioli (small dumpling shapes) and then fry them in good lard, when they are fried keep them hot (to serve).

LXI A good way for rice
If you want to make rice in the best way that you can, if it is for twelve people take two pounds of rice and two (pounds) of almonds and half a pound of sugar.  Take the peeled (husked) rice and wash it well.  Take the almonds, peel, wash, grind and temper with clear water and strain through a sieve (prepare almond milk).  Take the rice and put it on the fire in clean water, when it rises to the boil for the first time, and is boiling well, strain out the water that it contains and put in the almond milk.  Continue to cook slowly on the coals (off the fire) and mix carefully so that the rice doesnít break.  When it has soaked up the almond milk and it is just about cooked add the quantity of sugar.  This dish should be white and simple and when it is cooked powder with sugar above for serving.

LXII Fried ravioli, etc.
If you want to make fried ravioli for 12 people.  Take three pounds of pork loin, two fresh strained cheese, eight eggs and twelve (20 eggs), three ounces of dried currants, enough leaves of parsley, two pounds of fresh sumac and four ounces of sugar.  Take the pork loin, boil it well and chop (batter) finely with the cheese that you have, well washed and mashed, the well washed currants, the named spices and all these things (including the eggs).  Make a paste to make ravioli, make them small and subtle and put them to fry in the grease.  When they are fried powder them with sugar and serve them before other dishes from the kitchen service.

LXIII Fantastic common ravioli with herbs
If you want to make ravioli with herbs or with other things, take herbs and peel (strip from stalks) and wash well.  Put them to boil for a little time (parboil) and pull them out (of the pan) and squeeze out all the water.  Beat them with a knife (chop) and then in a mortar (grind).  Take fresh strained cheese, eggs and strong and sweet spices and mix these all well together and make a paste.  Then take a thin layer of pasta, in the way of lasagna sheets, and take a large measure (spoon) and make the ravioli.  When they are made put them to cook and when they are well cooked powder them above with enough spices and enough good cheese and they are very good.

* There is no mention here of appropriate cooking technique.  The previous ravioli recipes, which were lacking a pasta covering, were all fried.  This recipe uses a pasta layer around the filling, the other recipes for pasta (including the lasagne recipe XXXVIII) only contain the instruction to "cook" without specifying the mode.  However, later recipe collections (from the 15th and 16th centuries) clearly state that such stuffed pasta, and any other form of pasta, should be cooked in plenty of boiling water with salt.  An instruction unchanged through today.

LXIV Ravioli in another way and called "licaproprii"
Take sweet fresh cheese and squeeze out all the water, then mash it well and temper (mix) with egg whites and add a little wheat flour.  Have melted strained lard and make the "licaproprii" (dumplings/fritters) with well floured hands.  Make them large and round like apples, and put them to cook slowly and carefully (fry them in the lard), when they are cooked take them out of the grease and powder them well with sugar and send them hot to the table.
* - no translation for licaproprii could be found in any source available to me.

LXV Armored turnips
To make armored turnips, put the turnips to cook in the fire (embers) and when they are cooked peel them and cut into thin slices.  Take sweet cheese and make thin slices.  Between each slice of turnip put one (slice) of cheese and let them melt well together.  If you want you can put them with a hot lid above and they will be done, then powder them with sugar, etc.

LXVI Good and perfectly optimal roast in sweet/sour sauce
If you want to make a roast in sweet/sour sauce.  Take a loin of pork and roast it.  Take cooked and raw eggs and grind them together, add good white wine and vinegar and put it to boil in a pan.  Take slices of the roast and put it to boil in this (sauce) and add chopped dates and pine nuts and well washed Saracen grapes (specific dried raisin variety) and spices, and when it is cooked lift it from the fire and it will be good.

LXVII Perfect strong sauce
If you want to make a perfect strong sauce, take cloves, cinnamon, ginger, a little cardamom, hazelnuts, peeled by toasting over hot coals, a little bread crumb and sugar.  Grind these things together a little and mix with vinegar, and this is a good sauce for any roast (meat).

LXVIII Sauce for Capons
If you want to make a sauce for capons, take pure lean meat and put it to cook.  Take chicken livers and put them to cook (fried/boiled?) and then grind them with cloves, nutmeg and ginger.  Then one should temper the mixture with vinegar and white wine, and with water or if you want to make this a richer sauce add the drippings from the roast.  Put the sauce to cook and add sufficient sugar and it is done.

LXIX White ginger sauce for capons
If you want to make a white ginger sauce.  Take white ginger and crush the well peeled (root), and add sufficient well peeled (stalks removed) spinach and sage.  Grind these things well together and add sufficient sugar and temper this sauce with verjuice and with white vinegar.. This sauce one serves raw (cold) with roasted capons and hens.

LXX Sour orange relish
To make a sour orange relish that will last for a year, and to serve with any roast and to make any sauce that you want.  Take a heap (tuma)* of (sour) oranges well washed, good wine and a quantity of salt.  When the oranges are washed cut each one into four pieces.  Take the best wine that you have, a large barrel (barilo)*, and put in these oranges and a the amount of salt.  These will hold cured, without spoiling, and they are optimally perfect and good.

* A tuma is a specific measure but the actual measurement is uncertain.  In Sicily, where oranges are grown the measure of a tuma varies between 11 and 14 liters.
* Barilo is a barrel of a specific size, which can vary by region.  In Tuscany this measurement is about 45 litres.
Essentially these are brine cured oranges.  The amount of salt is not given in specific measurement but a standard brine curing ratio of 10% should be a start (that is 10% weight not volume, i.e. for every liter or 1000g of liquid use 100g of salt).

LXXI Sambugado (elder flower flavored dish) that is milk with elder flowers
If you want to make Sambugado.  Take clean sheepís milk, put elder flowers to soak in the milk and leave them to soften and soak for a while (enough), then strain the milk.  For a quarter (quarta) of milk one wants 12 eggs.  Beat the eggs and milk together then put them to boil * (see below) and protect from smoke.

* A quarta is obviously a liquid measurement but a quarter of what volume?  The most commonly used liquid measurements in other Italian manuscripts are the barile (45 liters), fiasco (2.25 liters), boccale (1.1 liter), mezzetta (1/2 liter), quartuccio (1/4 liter).  The quartuccio seems to be the closest measure, however, most modern egg custards are made with a ratio of 2 whole eggs per pint (a little under ½ liter) of milk.  If 12 eggs were added to half this amount of liquid one would be making scrambled egg.  Thus the modern ratio suggests that the 12 eggs mentioned in this recipe are thickening around 3 liters of milk.
* Whilst the recipe calls for boiling the dish this is not recommended, egg thickening of any solution occurs just below the boiling point, at the boiling point what you end up with is a nasty liquid with scrambled eggs in it.  My personal preference is a double boiler, that way the temperature does not raise too quickly and hit the curdling point.

LXXII Perfect and fantastic Sambugado (elderflower scented dish) that one serves in platters
If you want to make a sambugado to serve in platters for twelve people.  Take a pan (*pentola) of fresh sheepís or goatís milk, a pound of rice, a pound and a half of lard, three ounces * of sugar, and well mature elder flowers.  Take the milk, that you have strained/sieved and put it to boil.  When it has come to a boil the first thing that you add is the ground rice, the second the elder flowers, the third the melted lard and the fourth the quantity of sugar and add tempered saffron *.  This dish should be (served) hot and should be thick, sweet and flavored well with the flowers.

* A pentola is a pan, unfortunately they come in many sizes so no specific measurement is given here.  However, modern rice pudding recipes use 2 oz of rice per pint indicating that the pan in question probably holds around 6 pints.
The recipe calls for 3 ounces of sugar then indicates that the finished dish should be sweet.  Modern rice pudding recipes call for 1 ounce per pint of liquid this amount is half that and may be a scribal error.  But all recipes can be sweetened to taste.
The saffron added to this dish is supposed to be tempered, what this probably means is that the threads have been broken up and allowed to soak in warm water for a while so that the color and flavor are rapidly distributed through the finished dish.

LXXIII Fine spices for all dishes (things)
Take one ounce of pepper, one of cinnamon, one of ginger, half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, and a quarter (of an ounce) of saffron.

LXXIV Sweet spices, enough for many good and fine things
The best fine sweet spices that you can make, for lamprey pie or for other good fresh water fish that one makes in a pie, and for good broths and sauces.  Take a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, an ounce of good ginger, an ounce of soft (or sweet) cinnamon, and take a quantity (the same amount of?) Indian bay leaves (*) and grind all these spices together how you please.  And if you donít want to do more, take these things (spices) in the same ratio (without grinding) and they will be marvelously good.

* the glossary at the end of the Arnaldo Forni edition of this book indicates that folio in this recipe refers to malabathrum or Cinnamomum tamala also known as Indian bay leaf.  Follow this link for further information.

LXXV Black and strong spices for many sauces.
Black and strong spices to make sauces.  Take half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, two ounces of pepper and an (equal) quantity of long pepper and nutmeg and do as all spices (grind).

LXXVI A most perfect quick stew.
If you want to make a quick stew.  Take six hens and fry them in lard, then take away the lard so that there is not too much.  Add (to the pan and the hens) almond milk tempered with verjuice, minutely chopped ginger, dates cut into quarters and to add color to this dish saffron and it will be a good dish.

LXXVII Stuffed shoulder of mutton.
If you want to make stuffing of shoulders of mutton two or four, take the shoulder of mutton lifted with all the joints (intact) and one needs two shoulders for twenty people and three for forty people.  If one wants to make it (this dish) for more people or for less take these things (ingredients) in the same ratio.  Take four cauls of mutton, four spleens (milt) of mutton, six pounds of pork loin, one large pig liver and itís caul, twenty fresh cheeses the best that you might have, one (pound) of dates, a pound of dried currants, half a pound of sugar, half an ounce of cinnamon, half (an ounce) of whole ginger, and half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves.  Make half a pound of fine (quality) sweet spices that are warming (rich with cinnamon) and make half a pound of strong spices.
Take the shoulders and put them whole to boil and let them cook well, but not so much that the bones separate themselves.  Pull them out (of the cooking water) and take away all the meat, as much as you can.  Chop/beat it well and add much parsley, sage, mint and marjoram if you have them.  To this mixture/batter add salt, and beat, and spices, one cheese, well chopped fresh or salted lard and as many eggs as is enough (to bind the mixture).  This will be one of the mixtures/batters for this (dish).
Take the pork loin well chopped/beaten and mix with this six fat (rich and creamy) fresh cheeses, and add sweet and strong spices and enough well ground saffron and as many eggs as are enough (to bind the batter).  This is another mixture/batter for this (dish).
Take the pork liver boiled, well chopped and put it into a mortar and grind it.  To this add one large onion, a quantity of cumin, eggs and cheese and give it enough spices.  This mixture/batter should be firm and make ravioli. Take the pork (liver) caul and they should be fried in fresh lard and powdered with sugar.  This is another mixture/batter for this (dish).
Take the spleens, well washed and well scraped/scrubbed.  One of these fill with eggs, cheese and good green herbs.  The next fill with cheese, eggs, milk and all the good things you might have that are white.  The third stuff with cheese, eggs and saffron rich spices so that it is yellow.  The fourth fill with the mixture/batter of mutton that you have.  When they are full put them to boil so that they are cooked.
When they are cooked cut two of them into two large pieces each, and the other two cut into small pieces of one hand span each.  These should be fried.  Take the dates, a pound of dried currants, half a pound of sugar, half (an ounce) of whole ginger, half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, half a pound of sweet spices and half a pound of strong.  Thus they are powdered the best and make in this way if you want.

* I had difficulty understanding exactly what we were supposed to do with this recipe until I recently came across one of my older translations from a different book for stuffed lamb shoulder (click here to link to recipe).  The lamb shoulders are reformed around the intact bones, wrapped in a caul and then re-cooked.  So you have three large lamb "shoulders" one each of mutton, pork liver and pork loin.  These are the large items all of which are fried.  Then we have several small stuffed items, the spleens which are stuffed with the cheese mixtures, and some excess mutton mixture.  These are boiled, sliced and fried.  Finally the whole is served with sugar, spices and dried fruit on top.  If anyone can make more sense of this recipe than I have managed I would love to hear it.

LXXVIII   Perfect salted dish of eel.
Take eels and put them to roast over a pan which contains water, to collect all the fat which falls from the eel as it roasts.  When they are cooked take strong spices and salt, and mix it with the water and fat, chop the eels and put them into this sauce, and if you want to add a little mosto cotto it will give it a good flavor.

LXXIX.  Relish for any meat.
To make a sauce also called gratin for any meat or without meat.  Take beaten eggs, almond milk and a little verjuice, add bread, rose water and broth and blend everything together with sweet spices.  Put everything to boil together and add a little bit of saffron or red sandal wood and it will be special.

LXXX. Relish for fish.
If you want to make a sauce for fish which everyone calls tasty.  Fry them (the fish) in good oil,.  Take currants and mix (grind) them with verjuice and with vinegar.  Take onions, parboil them and then chop them with a knife, then fry them with this sauce (the currant/vinegar mix).  Add spices which do not contain saffron, and add plenty of galangal and make sure that the vinegar is not overpowering.

LXXXI. Green sauce for kid and other boiled meats.
Take parsley, ginger, cloves and cinnamon flowers and a little salt, grind everything together and mix with good vinegar, make it temperate (keep vinegar moderate) and they wonít want to wait to taste this.

LXXXII. A good sauce for mutton or kid.
The best sauce that one can make if these meats are boiled or roasted.  Take lean meat, which has been well cooked, and grind it in a mortar with a quantity of parsley sprouts, mint, sage, rosemary and any other good herbs which you may have, mixing it with the meat.  Add cinnamon, cloves and pepper and temper this sauce with the most fine/quality vinegar that you have.

LXXXIII. Relish of rue or of rocket
Take the seedlings of rocket, almonds, cooked eggs, sugar, ginger, nutmeg and cinnamon and mix everything together, and temper with good vinegar.  This is good with any quality meat.

LXXXIV. Perfect relish of the Tartars.
Take peeled garlic cooked in water, almonds, cinnamon, ginger, cloves, sugar, cooked egg yolks, mix/grind everything together and temper with vinegar.  This is a good sauce for roast pork and other meats.

LXXXV. Relish for boiled or roasted meat.
If you want to make "salomono" take anise seeds, peeled almonds, ginger, nutmeg and sugar.  Mix/grind everything together and temper with vinegar.  This is a good sauce to serve with boiled or roasted mutton.
* salomono Ė a specific name for this sauce, most resembles salt, a literal translation would be salted dish.

LXXXVI. Relish candied
To make a candied relish, take bread, roast it then put it to soak in vinegar.  Take cloves, grains of paradise, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom and sugar.  Mix/grind everything together and temper with vinegar and good verjuice and it is done

LXXXVII.  Relish for crayfish or lobster.
Çadelo, that is relish for crayfish or lobster.  Take the crayfish and boil them and pull out the tails, peel them reserve the meat and grind the shells.  Add a little water (to the ground shells) and strain them.  Take a few good herbs, egg yolks and almonds or bread crumb and grind these well in a mortar (with the shell extract) and temper with verjuice.  Add a little bit of water that it isnít too sour, and add sweet and strong spices and oil.  Remove the vein from the tails and put them in the sauce and put them to boil to flavor them.

LXXXVIII.  Saracen style sauce
If you want to make a Saracen style sauce, take almonds, currants, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, grains of paradise, cardamom, galangal and nutmeg.  Mix/grind everything together and temper with verjuice, this is a good sauce.

LXXXIX. Relish for all fat meat.
If you want to make a good fat sauce, take the meat and put it to boil.  Then take parsley and fry it in pork fat, then take the meat chopped into pea sized pieces and fry it with the parsley.  Take almond milk and egg yolks, saffron, verjuice and sweet spices and mix everything together and pour over this meat.  This is also good with an other meat.

XC.  Sauce for any meat
Take fennel flowers, not harvested in the evening, then take hard egg yolks and rosemary.  Mix these with the flowers and temper everything together * and it will be good.
* no tempering liquid is given for this recipe, given the previous recipes either verjuice or vinegar would be the logical choice.

XCI. The best Carmeline sauce.
To make the best carmeline sauce, take peeled almonds, grind and strain them (produce almond milk).  Take currants, cinnamon, cloves and a little bit of bread crumb, and mix everything together, temper with verjuice and it is done.

XCII. Sartramone (?) or sauce for any  meat.
To make a good sartramone * for meat or for fish.  Take an onion, boil it than fry it in pork fat, then add well beaten eggs and add sweet and strong spices, saffron and cloves, and make sure that it is a thick sauce.  This is a good relish for any meat.
* sartramone Ė the specific name of a dish.  The absence of any liquid in this dish is odd.  Currently the recipe appears to make more of an omelet, fried onions with eggs and spices, than a sauce.  There may be a liquid involved, tempering the eggs with broth may produce a sauce more reminiscent of a fricassee dish.

XCIII. Sage dish
Take sage and grind it in a mortar and strain the juice out.  Beat eggs with this juice and you can add cheese if you want.  Prepare a cooking pot or pipkin with melted strained fat inside.  Put the pan on the coals and pour the batter into it, mix it very well throughout cooking until it is thick and cooked and it is a wonderfully good dish.

XCIV Fish tart
Take three large tench or one large eel, three ounces of quality dates, half a pound of currants, two ounces of peeled pine nuts, two ounces of sweet and strong spices.  Take the tench well washed and cleaned and split along the back and take all the meat, and grind this meat raw with a quantity of parsley leaves, marjoram, fine oil, and the spices (and fruits?).  Of this stuffing make sausages as long as ravioli and fry them in oil until they are well boiled.  Take the remaining tench and put it to boil with parsley, and when it is well cooked grind all save the head, and add spices, oil and grind everything together (with fruit and nuts).  And of this stuffing make small ravioli with a thin pasta shell, and put them to fry in oil, and powder above with spices.  And this tart one wants to cook in a frying pan.
* Not so much a tart as a fish dumpling and a fried fish stuffed pasta.  We are left wondering where exactly to use the dried fruit and pine nuts called for in the original ingredient list.  It is not unreasonable to suspect that they are added to the various stuffing mixtures, in common with other recipes within this book.

XCV. Herb tart.
If you want to make a herb tart for twelve people, take six large cheeses and take a large quantity of herbs, that is beet, parsley, spinach and mint, two pounds of salted lard and eight eggs.  Take these well cleaned and chopped herbs that have been squeezed of their juice (free of liquid, i.e. dry).  Take the cheese and chop it with the coarsely chopped herbs, and take the lard that has been beaten as well as you can, and take the eggs that you have and mix all these things together.  Put this mixture between two crusts in a tart pan, and make the crust on top of this tart yellow.  This tart should be fat with lots of cheese and many herbs.  If you want to make it for more or less people take these same items in the same ratio.

XCVI. Tortellini of enula*, etc.
If you want to make tortellini (stuffed pasta) of enula with broth.  Take capons or take beef meat for twelve people, three pounds of pork loin, three dry fine cheeses, and three ounces of fine and sweet and strong spices well yellow.  And take the two pennyworth of enula and twenty eggs.  Put the pork loins to boil with the well peeled enula.  When it is well cooked grind the loin and the enula together but donít add all the enula.  Take the cheese that you have and grind it with the loin and add the spices and as many of the eggs as you need, and make it so that it doesnít taste too much or too little of the enula.  Mix everything together, into a batter and make little tortellini in a yellow pasta sheet.  These tortellini should be yellow and strong with spices.

* - Inula helenium, relative of chicory. The recipe originally calls for capons or beef and then proceeds to ignore them completely.  From the first line we know that these pasta are supposed to be served with broth.  The intention here may be to cook the capons or beef by boiling, cook the tortellini in the same broth.  Whether it is intended to serve the meat with the cooked pasta and the broth is not known.

XCVII. Fantastic crayfish or lobster tart
Take boiled crayfish and pull the flesh from the tails, and take a quantity of good herbs, and chop all well together and put with them almond milk, fine spices and currants.  And of this batter make a thin tart between two crusts, and above the filling should be potent with sweet spices and currants, and the crust should be good and yellow.

XCVIII Most perfect and good mushroom tart
If you want to make a strained mushroom tart, take whole peeled mushrooms which have been washed well, cut them into large pieces and squeeze out all the water.  Take salted lard, which has been melted and strained and put the mushrooms to fry in it, add enough water that they donít scorch.  When they are just cooked take them out of the pan and put into a basin and mix with them a quantity of cheese and eggs.  Put this batter into a tart pan with a very thin crust, which is also very strong.  The crust should be thin and yellow and the filling strong with spices with plenty of mushrooms and little eggs, and put it to cook well.

XCIX Elder flower flavored tart
Elderflower flavored tart for twelve people.  Take a large pot of fresh milk curds and take two pounds of fresh loin (of pork?), twelve eggs, three ounces of sugar and mature elder flowers.  Take the milk curds with the water strained out, the eggs that you have, the pork belly fat or lard and the elder flowers and mix these things together and put into a crust.  And this tart should be fat and sweet and it is good.
*- where did the loin disappear to. We were asked for a loin and then the pork belly fat appeared.  If you were to view this as a sweet cheesecake recipe the pork loin obviously has no place.  It may be a transcription error in the original manuscript or the recipe did originally call for pork fat from the loin.
The "late apresso" which I originally translated just as milk, appears to be pressed milk, which would make sense given that later we are told to take it strained of water, in which case it is a form of cheese curd

C Latticed tart for twelve people.
Take the most white flour that you have, in the amount of three pounds, and take two ounces of sugar, a pound of almonds and thirty six hazel nuts, half a pound of raisins, twenty five dates, half of a quarter of an ounce of cloves.  Take a good quantity of almond milk, and take the flour that you have, well mixed with water so that it is thick.  Take a frying pan which is well greased with oil and with this flour make a crust, and powder it with the sugar and the said spices, add the crushed hazel nuts, finely chopped dates, well washed raisins and ground cloves and save a portion of the crust and put it above each part of these things and it is a tart.
* - another case of missing ingredients.  The recipe calls for a pound of almonds, which is rendered to almond milk, which is mentioned in the context of the flour, but the flour was mixed with water to a dough and the almonds are never mentioned again.  There is no thickening agent, but it may be possible that the almond milk is added to the dried fruit inside the crust.  The final instructions regarding the top crust is confusing.  It is not clear whether the pie is completely covered or just covered with scraps of pastry, like a lattice.  The Italian name of the pie is "balconata" means either balcony, window of heaven, or window in some senses.  So either the pie is heavenly giving us a window on heaven, or there may be openings on the crust giving us a window into the pie.

CI Spelt tart, etc.
To make a spelt tart for twelve people, take two pounds of spelt, two pounds of lard, a quart of sheep or goats milk, six fresh cheeses and ten eggs.  Take the well husked and washed spelt and boil it in water, when it is cooked strain off the water and mash the cooked grain.  When it is well broken add the well beaten lard, the ground cheese, the milk and the said eggs and mix everything well together, and put between two crusts in a hot tart pan.  This tart should be very fat and it is good.

CII Scallion or onion tart etc.
If you want to make a tart of these things, take whichever you want and boil it well.  Take it out of the water and squeeze out all the water in sieve and then chop them finely.  Take fine lard and chop/grind it well, eggs, fresh cheese, and saffron and mix all these things together and make the tart.

CIII Cheese and egg tart without lard
Take the cheese and cut it into small fingers, put it into a bowl with the eggs and enough cheese butter (see recipe X) or fresh butter or fat without lard and add spices.  Make a thin crust and make the pie (with this filling).

CIV A good ordinary tart
Take pork belly, boil it then grind it well, put it into a bowl add a little fresh cheese and mix them well together.  Add sweet and strong spices, peeled pine nuts, raisins and saffron and temper the mixture with eggs.  For three pounds of meat one will want five of cheese.

CV Garlic tart
Take garlic cloves, peel and boil them.  When they are cooked put them to soak in cold water and then grind them and add saffron, enough fresh cheese, beaten lard, sweet and strong spices and temper the mixture with eggs, add raisins and then make the tart.

CVI Milk tart
Take (hard) cheese and grate it, take eggs, spices and good herbs and beat everything together with the eggs, temper it with milk.  Make a crust as described above.

CVII Tart of dried gourd
Take the (dried) gourd and boil it, then grind it well with lard, then put it into a bowl, add three drained cheese, pepper and saffron and make a paste and temper it with eggs and make the tart.

CVIII Fresh bean tart
Take the beans and cook them with pork belly, then grind the beans in a mortar and chop the pork belly with a knife.  Add the best spices that you have, and add plenty of cheese, so that it is half or third of the total batter, and mix in aged lard and make the tart and it is most perfect.
* the beans in question here are probably fava beans, which existed in Italy before the importation of new world beans.

CIX Optimally good fresh fava bean tart
King Manfredo tart of fresh favas.  Take the favas and peel, then cook them in good milk, strain them and take cooked pork belly and chop it finely with a knife, then mix the favas and meat together.  Take sweet and strong spices and saffron and put it into a bowl (with the meat and fava mixture) and add good fresh cheese and make a paste.  Then make the tart and put this batter into the pastry, and in the middle and on top put slices of sweet fat cheese etc.
* - I believe that it is intended that you make layers within the pie, put half the pie filling in, layer the cheese on top, put the other half of the filling and top with more cheese before the final pie crust is added.

CX Good and optimal French tart
Take pork shoulder meat, both lean and fat and mince it well with a knife, mix in sweet and strong spices and temper it with eggs.  Make the tart and add saffron on top and cook it well .

CXI Good and fantastic Manfreda tart
Take chicken gizzards and liver, and pork belly and grind them well together with a knife, then add pepper and fry them together in a pan.  Take them out and let them chill before adding eggs, make a crust, then put it in a pan and cook it enough.

CXII Good parmesan tart
Parmesan tart for twenty five people.  Take eight pounds of pork loin, twelve fresh cheeses and hard (dried) cheeses, twenty six eggs, half a pound of sweet spices, six chickens and four capons.
Boil the pork loin well and when it is cooked chop it and chop with it a quantity of mint and parsley.  Take six fresh cheeses and twenty four eggs add this to what you have already (the chopped pork) and as much chopped salted lard as is enough, and spices and enough saffron, and make this into a good yellow paste.
Take two fresh cheeses, and egg whites and grin them together and make nine white ravioli with a pasta crust.
Take two fresh cheeses and one hard cheese, mint and parsley and grind them together and make twelve green ravioli.
Take four cheeses and cut them into nice slices across.
Take the chickens, clean them, and from each part of the cleaned chickens make two (see note), and put them to fry in melted strained salted lard, with spices.
Have one (pound) of dates dusted with cinnamon and ginger and cloves
Boil the ravioli in water and when they are cooked take them out and powder with sweet spices.  Layer everything in the pie with a crust above.  And this pie should be yellow and fat with lard and strong with spices.  You can make if for more or less people.  If you make it in a tart pan of copper it needs little heat, and in a terracotta tart pan it will need more heat.
* A complicated tart recipe that is easy to lose track of the different stuffings.  The different paragraphs were introduced to keep track of the various mixtures.  I am not sure if the chickens are bone in or bone out.  The Italian word smembrare can mean to dismember, to gut or to carve.  Hence each chicken may be cut into breast, legs and wings, and then the breast and legs are again cut in two. Alternatively it is only the breast meat that is cut into two, fried and strips of chicken are fried to layer in the pie.  No order is given for the layering of the pie although originally there was probably a set order for the layering of all items.

CXIII Hungarian tart for twelve people
Take a good fat capon and a large pork loin, two large onions, half a pound of sweet and fine spices, three pounds of fresh grease that isnít salted, and take as much flour as it takes to make three loaves of bread, the best that you have.  Chop the capon and the pork loin into small pieces, and do the same with the onions, put all these things to fry in a good quantity of the fresh pork belly fat, adding the said sweet spices, enough saffron and a little salt.  When everything is well fried add a beaker of water and allow it to cook to completion.  Take the flour and blend it well with fresh salted water and knead it very well.  When it is well kneaded take a tinned copper tart pan and grease it well with the fresh lard that you have.  Take the well mixed dough and roll it out very thinly, layer the pastry in the tart pan, brushing with lard between each layer until there are twelve layers.  Then put the capon batter and the other things in a single layer in this tart, and put several more sheets in layers, well greased with lard between each one and make a crust above the tart like a package (?).  This tart should be given a little heat below and a good fire on top to cook it.  To make it for more or less people take the ingredients in the same ratio.
* The final instruction to make the top crust like a "vardia" is difficult.  There is no translation for vardia. The florio dictionary indicates it may be an alternative form of Guardare Ė to look.  Which could mean the crust above is arranged for looks.  Another alternative is an alternative spelling of fardo which means package.

CXIV Romanian tart
To make a Romanian tart for twelve people.  Take six chickens and four fresh or dried cheeses, twelve eggs, thirty dates, a pound of raisins, and one of sloes, half an ounce of whole cinnamon, half an ounce of ginger, half a quarter of an ounce of cloves, half an ounce of saffron, two ounces of peeled pine nuts and four ounces of yellow sweet spices.  Take the well washed chickens and cut them into pieces, then fry them in melted, strained lard, and add sweet spices when frying them.  Take the fresh cheese you have and make as many ravioli as you can and boil them in water.  When they are cooked powder them with fine spices.  When the chicken pieces are fried enough add a measure of water, and when they are nearly finished cooking add a cut and strained cheese, eight eggs, cinnamon, cloves, peeled pine nuts, well washed raisins, the spices and enough saffron.  Guard the pan from taking too much heat, until everything is well cooked.  Put a thin crust in a tart pan and put the chicken and the ravioli and everything inside in layers, and put a thin yellow crust on top.  This tart should be given little heat while cooking, otherwise the crust will blend with the filling.

CXV Good tortellini made like white fritters for lent.
To make white tortellini for twelve people.  Take a pound of almonds, a quarter (of a pound) of hazel nuts and half a pound of sugar.  Take the well peeled almonds and hazel nuts and grind them together and mix in enough of the sugar to make a paste, this batter is used to make the fritters, and make them small.  Take flour and saffron and blend them with water so that it is a soft, yellow dough, and wrap the tortellini in this and fry them in good oil.  When they are cooked dust them with sugar and send them to the table before the other dishes.

CXVI Most perfect good Lenten tortellini made like white fritters
Take a quantity of good well boiled gourd and grind them with well peeled almonds, add a quantity of well ground good herbs and good oil.  And of these things make a batter and make small tortellini (as above) and fry them in oil then powder them with sugar and it is done.

CXVII Dish made with finely chopped ingredients
To make a chopped dish.  Take leek whites and put them to boil whole, then chop them with a knife until they are well cut.  Then fry them with the fat from whichever meat you have cooked.  Take bread, grate it and put it to soak in hot water.  Take a piece of meat and chop the meat and the soaked bread together with a knife.  Then take beaten eggs, and enough saffron, and mix them together with the meat, and put this in with the fried leeks with enough spices and it will be good.
* The name of this dish "tredura" literally means chopped, it is most similar to a hash.  Where everything is fried together in the pan.

CXVIII Dish to make a good stomach (to settle the stomach or to stimulate the appetite)
Take quince, boil them then peel them and grind them.  Take almond milk and mix with the quince paste and put this to cook.  When it is cooked add a little sweet spices and enough sugar.

CXIX A lemon flavored dish
To make this dish for twelve people.  Take six fat chickens, six capons, three ounces each of fine spices, almonds and fine sugar, twenty five dates, twelve juicy oranges and half a pound of prunes.  Take the chickens that you have and put them to boil, when they are cooked take a pound of melted and strained lard and put the chickens to fry, dusting them with the said spices.  Mix these with the sugar and the almonds which have been washed and ground with the skimmed, strained chicken broth.  Put this to cook in a pot, and at the start of the boil add a quantity of the said spices and add the well washed prunes, each cut in half, and then add soaked saffron.  When this dish starts to boil add the capons and the oranges and make sure that it is strong with spices and sweet with sugar.  And serve the capons on a plate and the sauce in a bowl.
*  I think that the sauce is made with the boiled then fried chickens, almonds and sugar, the capons which are more tender are simply boiled in the sauce and served separately.

CXX Cooked wine
To make cooked wine (or wine must), take red wine, the finest that you have, and good honey.  Put them to boil together with a quantity of cinnamon buds, and boil until it is reduced by a third.  And for every four beakers of wine you will need a beaker full of honey.

CXXI Gourds
To cook good gourds.  Take the dried flesh and let it boil well in oil, but not too much.  Take peeled almonds, grind them and put them with the gourds and make it white, or if you want yellow, and add raisins to it.
* I have a suspicion that the almonds here may be made into almond milk and that milk added to the gourds to cook.

CXXII Fantastic chicken with fennel
Chicken with fennel for twelve people.  Take twelve chickens and six small capons prepared like hens.  Take the chickens and fry them in melted and strained lard.  Take fennel roots and parsley, well washed and fry these with the chickens.  Add to the frying chickens three ounces of fine spices.  When everything is well fried pour out most of the lard, so that there isnít too much in the pan, and add enough water and vinegar so that the everything is covered.  When they are cooked take eighteen egg yolks and the livers from the chickens and grind everything together with spices and saffron, a quantity of verjuice and vinegar.  Take out the cooked roots and discard them, to the chicken add the egg and liver mixture and put it to boil.  This dish should be yellow and strong with spices and should have a flavor of fennel.  Serve the chicken on a carving dish and the sauce in a bowl.

CXXIII Chickens with fennel in another way.
Take the chickens and dismember then, put them to boil but not too much then fry them in lard.  Take almonds and fennel seed and grind everything together and temper with the boiling water from the chickens.  Then serve them in bowls and add sweet spices.
* so much remains unanswered, do we strain the almond milk from the ground almonds or simply add everything to the frying chickens or is this intended to be served as a sauce with the boiled and fried chickens.  It could be interpreted either way, however given the preceding recipes I would suggest that it is intended to finish cooking the chicken in the almond/fennel mixture.

CXXIV Very good chickens cooked like carp is cooked.
Take the chickens and let them boil, then cut them in half and fry them in lard.  Take raisins and grind them with verjuice and vinegar and with the chicken broth.  Chop parboiled onions and fry them with this sauce, and add spices that donít contain saffron and add enough galangal.  This dish should not be too vinegary.
* Again the instruction to add the cooked chickens to the sauce is overlooked.  However when carp is seasoned with a vinegar sauce the sauce is either poured over the fried fish or the fried fish is added to the sour sauce and cooked for a brief time.  Either method would work here.

CXXV To make smoked yellow sausage
Take twenty five pounds of pork, which is not that from the neck nor from the leg, but is the meat from the meat from the ribs or the shoulder, otherwise take twenty pounds of meat and five pounds of fat, which is the same thing.  Take more or less dependent on how much you want to serve.  Chop everything well with a knife, then have fifteen ounces of white cheese and fifteen ounces of salt from Sardinia or two pounds of salt from Chiogga, and six ounces of red pepper.  Make sure that the salt and the cheese are finely chopped and mixed well into the batter.  Stuff the intestines and let them rest for two days, more if the weather is cold and clear, more is better. Then put them to smoke.  You can also add to the batter saffron and spices, as much as you feel is appropriate.
*  The recommendation for meat types is based on the fat content of the meat.  Essentially the cuts of shoulder and ribs are very fatty and no extra fat is needed.  If the leaner cuts of leg, collar and loin are used the recipe recommends that you take 20 pounds of these meats and 5 pounds of pork fat.

CXXVI Tart from Lavagna for twelve people
Take six chickens, six fresh or dried cheeses, eighteen eggs, two pounds of lard, a little saffron, a good quantity of parsley, a little mint and a little sage. Put the hens to boil, and when they are well cooked dismember them (remove the bones).  Take the cheese which has been washed and ground, and a quantity of lard as much as you want, and the eggs and mix them together with this stuffing so that it is neither too firm nor too soft, and add soaked saffron threads to the mixture.  Put everything between two sheets of pastry and put it to cook in a pan and make the tart.  And make the crust green with the said herbs, and fat but without spices and it will be good, most perfect and optimal. Etc.
* the chickens are either jointed, mixed with the batter and baked, or the meat from the chickens is ground with the other ingredients to make a pie filling. Lavagna is a town on the Levant river, however the tart was named to celebrate the ascent of Sinibaldo Fieschi, count of Lavagna to the papal throne. This information was obtained from "Italian cuisine a cultural history.  Alberto capatti & Massimo Montanari. 2003 Columbia University Press."

CXXVII To candy fresh almonds, peaches*, walnuts that are perfect, neither too hard nor too soft etc.
Take the said items, peel them and put holes in them, the walnuts want six holes each, the peach pits six, the almonds four.  These should be put in water, the water should be changed every day until the nuts are sweet, then boil them in water, the walnuts should be boiled for half an hour, the peach pits and almonds from when they start to boil for a quarter of an hour.  Then put them to dry in the shade and in the wind in a fruit basket under a lattice for three days, the peach pits and the almonds for two.  Then fill each hole with gloves, cinnamon and ginger.  Then let them boil in honey for the time it takes to recite six "Our Fathers".  Take them out of this honey and boil them in fresh honey until that honey is cooked.  Then powder fine spices above the honey and put them in a closed pharmacy pot in the sun for the space of five days.  The peach pits should be made the same way except that they should be boiled in the first honey until it is cooked, there is no need to change them to fresh.  Note that the almonds will not last past the middle of April in a hot location, because their skin will become too hard.
* May be peach pits rather than fresh peaches, this would be in keeping with the grouping with other nuts and the similar treatment.

CXXVIII To make little cakes of Monaco
Take eggs that have been beaten well with a little salt, take as many eggs as you want with the wheat flour that want to make the said items.  Paste the flour together with the beaten eggs without water.  If you want honey, for each ten eggs you want a good spoon of honey, if you want them with sugar instead for each eggs you will want an ounce of sugar.  The dough should be worked very well, and made immediately and have in mind that they should be cooked immediately so that they donít catch either wind or sun because immediately they will spoil.  They should be cooked in a tart pan that doesnít heat the little cakes too much, and thus you cook them one at a time, making sure that the terracotta pot isnít greasy, make sure it has been well cleaned if it was greased.
* - what I do know about little cakes is that they were a very popular bread type item served up until the 16th century at least.  Ciambelle di Monaco, little cakes of Monaco are referred to frequently in the menus of Scappi.  Indications are that they are round cakes, which could be either like a bracelet, i.e. loops of dough, or solid more like a bread bun.  For ten eggs there is just a little sugar, but we arenít given an amount of flour to make these, so it will be a challenge to redact this recipe.

CXXIX To candy gourds in two ways.
Take firm gourds just after flowering, and peel them, and cut each into two pieces, then boil in water until they are tender.  Have ready nine vessels filled with cold water, put the gourds into the first, then immediately into the second, then the third, then the fourth ending at the ninth vessel when the gourds should be nice and cold in the water.  Then put the gourds to dry in an airy place, without sunlight for three days.  Then put them to boil for a little in honey, take them from this honey and put them into pan with more fresh honey and boil until they are cooked.  If you want to make them more delicate, put sugar to boil with the honey.  Have in mind that when the said gourds are done, that is cooked, put them in a glazed bowl and set them in the air until all the honey is dried, and then you can store them wherever you ant.  It will take perhaps fifteen days to dry the honey and they should be protected from the sun.  If you want to make this in another way, put them in a bowl and every day pour over boiling water, and every day one changes the water for eight days.  Then one puts them to boil until they are tender and make them in the same way as the others, except that one does not have to put them in the cold water in the nine vessels.

CXXX To make a good and delicate dish of oranges
Take the peel of the oranges, and cut into as many pieces as you want, and clean the insides well (free of white pith).  Soak the peels for fifteen days in water, then put them to boil in an excess of water until they are tender.  Let them dry for three days then put them in honey which you will boil for three days (bring the honey to a boil and leave the peels overnight).  Then you will give the honey a short boil and change it.  To that honey one will add the peels with spices.  First the spices are mixed into the skimmed honey, then the whole is boiled until the honey is well cooked.  Then you will leave the peels a number of days in the air without sun to dry.

CXXXI To make a chopped orange dish in another way
Make this dish the same as that above, except that one does not change the honey and the orange peels should be finely chopped with a knife, then cooked in the honey.  Bear in mind that they should be cooked so much that the honey is almost hard.  It needs a very slow and temperate fire to cook the peels together with the honey and it is done.

CXXXII Candied "apio" and paradise apples that are ready immediately, and grated they can be made as you like.
Take apples and peel them, then grate them, watch that there isnít seeds inside the grated apples, and let them dry for two days.  The juice that comes from the apples leave with them, and stain the grated apples, and for every three pounds of apples add three pounds of honey and let the apples sit in the honey for two days.  Then put them to boil, always mixing carefully until the honey is cooked.  Have in mind that the spices should be added when the candy is nearly cooked and candied, such as for quinces. Then spread the candy over a table or over a wet stone.  Make them in the way of a large sheet, less than a half a finger high.  Leave them to cool and make rolls of small pieces of the candy and put them to rest on a dish lined with bay leaves below and then above, and build them up layer by layer.  And if you want to add spices between each layer it will be very good.  Bear in mind that it will need to boil for at least an hour and perhaps for two, always mixing well and protected from smoke.

CXXXIII To make a good and fantastic quince marmalade
Take the quinces, peel them and boil them in plenty of water, and cook them until they fall.  Take a basin with a hole in it or a cheese grater and grate them finely until you have collected all that is good, and make sure that none of the seeds get into the grated quince.  Keep this grated quince for three days in an airy location before you add the honey, then for every pound of the grated quinces you want three pounds of honey.  Put these to boil together, when the honey is cooked add fine spices.  And if you want to add to the mixture, put in the boiling mixture a little sugar, for each three pounds of quince marmalade you will need six ounces of sugar in replacement of the spices.  When it is cooked spread it over a table bathed with fresh water.  Spread it in the same way as a large sheet of pasta, less than half a finger in height.  And roll them like one does wafers, and put them into a pharmacy jar with spices and with laurel leaves.  That which is not for invalids should be boiled for two hours until it is done and while cooking it should be mixed constantly.  This quince marmalade should be continually mixed while cooking with a flat wooden stirrer. Etc.

CXXXIV To make a healthy and good dish of enula.
Take as much enula as a large egg, and twice as much of pork belly.  Put the pork belly to cook then chop it well with a knife then grind in a mortar.  In the same way cook the enula, and when it is cooked grind it.  Take two good cheeses and six or seven eggs and make a paste and put this to fry in a pan with grease and it will make a healthy dish.  And if you want to add a beaker of milk it will be a dish fit for an emperor.  If you donít have fresh pork belly take veal or bull brains that are good put keep in mind that this should be made with fine spices and sugar so not to spoil.
*Inula helenium, relative of chicory

CXXV A good dish
Take flour, eggs, grated cheese and spices and grind them together in a mortar.  Then form into claws as long as a finger with your hands, put them to cook by boiling.  And over the dish (of these dumplings) powder spices and cheese and serve them hot.  And if you want to make (here ends the document).

* notes at the end of each recipe are personal observations, comments on word substitutions/translations, and indications on how the recipe may be interpreted.

References used were:

An Italian Dictionary, By Alfred Hoare, M.A. Second Edition.  Cambridge University Press 1925.  This was a much more useful dictionary than many modern ones as it gave archaic, obsolete and dialect forms of verbs and spellings and referred to the modern italian spelling, often giving etymological basis for the words.

A dictionary Italian & English, Formerly compiled by John Floria and since his last edition, anno 1611, augmented by himselfe in his life time with many thousand words and tuscan phrases.  Now most diligently revised, corrected and compared with la Crusca and other approved dictionaries extant since his death and enriched with many considerable editions.  Printed by T. Warren for Fa. Martin, Fa. Allestry and the Dicas, and are to be sold at the signe of the Bell in S. Pauls Church-Yard.  MDCLIX.

Many thanks to Johnna Holloway for pointing me to this dictionary it cleared up many obscure phrases, being compiled before the Italian language was standardized.

Testi antichi di gastronomia.  Libro di Cucina del secolo XIV A cura di Ludovico Frati.  Ristampa anastatica dellíedizione di Livorno, 1899.  Arnaldo Forni Editore.

Thanks to Mary Fisher for proof reading the final document and finding all the typographical errors and spelling mistakes that were overlooked.

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