It's Offal Time - recipes from Scappi – Or lots things we can’t serve at feast to the masses.  

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I make this information, specifically these translations freely available for non-profit scholarly research and use.  If you wish to use these translations for a feast or newsletter etc. please credit me as the source.  If  nothing else I really like to know who is seeing and using my stuff.  I can be contacted by email at helewyse at yahoo dot com.


So called variety meats are ill favored in our time, but that was not necessarily the case in the time of Scappi, 16th century Italy. Variety meats make up an important part of the menus and cuisine of the time, one which due to the squeamishness of modern feasters we are forced all too often to forgo.  Here is a brief overview of some of the dishes prepared from every bit of an animal (all except the squeal and the curl in the tail as they say) and where they turned up in the menu of the day.  In chapter 2 (the meat chapter) there are 110 recipes for meat animals (not including dishes containing birds or other dishes such as vegetables or pastas) of these a full 50 indicate how to cook variety meats, the remaining dishes are for what we consider the edible bits.  This means that almost 50% of the recipes are going wasted and will never be used.  While I don’t expect that any of these dishes will ever appear in an SCA feast I would like to see the period cooks among us be willing to set aside issues of our childhood and try these dishes and see what the cooks of the past found noteworthy about variety meats.  So give it a go.  While this is not every recipe including variety meats in Scappi I have tried to include a wide variety, from different animals and just about every edible bit, from nose to tail.  If you happen to come across something in the grocery store and really want a 16th century Italian recipe for it and it isn’t here, just email me.  Give me a couple of days I’m sure I could rustle something up.
What about in the menus where do variety meats turn up.

Beef head
Brains and sweet bread
Noses, ears and feet
Sweet bread
Liver (bird)
Liver (pork)
Fish liver and milt
Fish eggs
Fish guts

The menus

Answer, everywhere, but the last service from the sideboard.  They serve variety meats cold in the first course, hot in the courses from the kitchen.  Just about everywhere.  The following are simple extracts from the menus of two months to give you an idea.
For the full Italian transcription and English translation of these menus please see the August or October menus.

Lunch on the 8th of August     
First and last service from the kitchen     
Flan of sweetbread of kid no 3 piatti 3     
Kid’s head gilded with eggs, and fried served with sugar Capers, sugar and rose scented vinegar above no 9 piatti 3     
Lamb testicles roasted on the spit with their crust no 24 plates 3     
Jelly in many colors in straws (tubes)  plates 5
Dinner on the 8th of August.     
First service from the sideboard     
Salad of kids feet  plates 3     
Salted beef tongue, and sausage cooked in wine, cut into slices lb 6 plates 3     
Jelly with capon meat beneath  plates 5     
First service from the kitchen     
Tongue of veal boiled, then wrapped in a caul, roasted on the spit served with it’s juice above no 6 plates 3
Lunch on the 15th of August    
First service from the sideboard     
Mortatelle (sausage) and salted buffalo tongue, cooked in wine, cut in slices lb 10 plates 6
Second service from the kitchen     
Jelly passed through the syringe (piped)  plates 10     
Pastry of veal tongue, with two per pastry with it’s sauce within no 6 plates 6     
Dinner on the 15th of August     
First service from the sideboard     
Salted beef tongue, and sausage cooked in wine, cut into slices, in total lb 12 plates 6
Salted pork belly, desalted, cooked in wine and cut into slices  no 8 plates 6
First service from the kitchen     
Fricassee of necks and gizzards of chicken, with a cheese and egg liaison, served with sugar and cinnamon above.   plates 6     
Veal tongue, boiled, then wrapped in a caul, and roasted on the spit served with it’s sauce (juice) above lb 9 plates 6     
Jelly in small bites, of many colors  plates 10
Lunch on the 8th of October    
First and last service from the kitchen     
Pork liver, in caul, roasted on the spit, served with sour orange on top.     
Liver sweet bread and liver fried served with lemon juice, pepper and salt above
Dinner (on the 8th) with the same order/layout as the lunch     
Salted beef tongue and sausage cooked in wine, cut in slices    
Lunch on the 15th of October
First service from the sideboard     
Salted pork tongue cooked in wine, cut in slices
First service from the kitchen     
Veal sweet bread and liver fried served with sour orange juice, salt, sugar and pepper on top   8lb plates 4
Meat gelatins in quarters
Second and last service from the kitchen     
Boiled veal feet, sauce liaison of cheese and eggs
Second and last service from the sideboard     
Dinner (on the 15th) following the same order/layout as lunch
First service from the sideboard     
Salad of veal feet    
Salted beef tongue and sausage cooked in wine, cut in slices     
First service from the kitchen     
Tart of kid sweet bread and rump of pigeons with “Lucchese” sausage     

Part 1 – The head
Per accommodar la testa del boue in diversi modi Cap I Secondo libro
Anchor che la testa del boue para, che non sia in uso, ne meno nel numero dell vivande elette, pur si può accommodare in diversi modi, & ritrovo che tal testa è assai saporita nella stagione del boue, laqal comincia l’Autunno, & dura per tutto Febraro.  E vero che li vecchi si ringrassano nella Primavera con l’herbetta tenera, & il Verno si ringraßano con il panello di noce, & di linosa & d’altre cose.  La stagione della vaccina comincia dal fin di Maggio per tutto Settembre, cosi anco le seccaticcie, però in queste stagioni si può pigliare una delle sopradette teste subito doppò morto l’animale, e scorticata e spaccata che sarà, & netta in piu acque, si potrà alessare in acqua con presciutto, o salciccione che non sia rancido, & cotta che sarà, si servirà cosi calda con agliata over mostarda sopra.  Ma se si ne vorrano fare diverse fricassee delle parti migliori cioè della punta del muso, delle cervelle, degli occhi, & delli polsi, sarà in arbitrio, & quando le dette teste saranno d’animali di meza età, saranno molto migliori. Et le dette parti migliori dapoi che saranno bene alessate, & poi fritte, si potranno coprire di peverata, o di civiero.  
To prepare the head of bulls in various ways.  First chapter, second book.
Although the head of the bull seems without use, no less than a number of choice dishes, as one can prepare it in many different ways and one finds that the head is very tasty during the season of bull, which starts in autumn and lasts through all of February.  It is true that the old fatten themselves in spring on the tender herbage and in the winter they fatten on bread of walnut or flax or other things.  The season of the cow starts at the end of May and runs through all of September, this is true also for the dry barren cows.  However in the appropriate season one can take one of the above heads as soon as the animal is dead, and skin it and split it, and wish in plenty of water.  One can boil it in water with ham or with sausage that is not rancid, and when it is cooked one serves it thus hot with garlic sauce or mustard on top.  But if you want to make various fried dishes (fricassees) of the best parts that is the point on the muzzle, of the brains, of the eyes, and of the ?lungs? it is up to you, and when the said head is from an animal which is still young (of half age) it will be much better.  And the said best parts after they are well boiled and then fried one can cover with pepper sauce or civet sauce.

Per arrostir su la graticola, adorare, & far fricasea della lingua della vitella mongana. Cap XXXI Secondo libro.
Alessata che sarà la lingua, & netta di quella pelle, se sarà picciola, si lascierà intiera, ma se sarà grossa, si partirà in due pezzi, per lungo, polverizzandola di fior di finocchio, pan grattato, & sal trito, & pongasi su la graticola con una fetta di lardo sopra, per ciascuna parte rivolgendola, & come haverà preso un pochetto di colore, servasi cosi calda con sugo di melangole, & zuccaro sopra; Ma volendosi soffriggere, taglisi in fette per lo traverso dapoi che sarà rifreddata, & soffriggasi con strutto, over lardo colato, & con cipollette, & servasi cosi calda con esse cipollette, pepe, & sugo di melangole sopra; & volendola indorare con uove sbattute, partita che sarà per lungo in due parti (come s’è detto) involgasi in uove battute & herbuccie battute, & pan grattato, & facciasi friggere nello strutto in modo che sia coperta da ambedue le bande di essa compositione, & servasi calda con sugo di melangole, zuccaro, & cannella sopra.
To roast on the grill, gild and fry tongue of suckling veal Chapter 31 2nd book.
Once the tongue is boiled and cleaned of it’s skin, if it is small leave it whole, but if it is large one cuts it into two pieces along the length.  Powder it with ground fennel seed, grated bread and fine salt and put on the gril with a slice of “lardo” on top (one) for each part turned, and when it has taken a little bit of color serve it as is hot with sour orange juice and sugar above.  But if you want to fry it, cut it in pieces across (side to side) after it has cooled and fry it with grease or strained lard and with little onions, and serve it hot with these onions, pepper and sour orange juice on top, and if you want to gild it with beaten eggs, cut it along the length into two parts (as it was said) roll it in beaten eggs, and chopped herbs and grated bead and put it to fry in grease in the way that it is covered both sides of this mixture and serve it hot with sour orange juice, sugar and cinnamon above.  

Per fare le dette crostate o pan ghiotto con cervelle & animelle di vitella Cap CCXXXI Secondo libro
Faccianosi alessare le cervelle, & animelle, & come saranno alessate, cavinosi, & faccianosi ben soffriggere l’animelle nella stutto, o lardo liquefatto, & battanosi minute con li coltelli con menta, maiorana, pimpinella, & finocchio fresco, & mescolinosi con esse le cervelle, con pepe, garofani, cannella, noci moscate, zafferano, cascio grattato, zuccaro, rossi d’uove crude, sugo di melangole, overo agresto chiaro, & sale a bastanza, & d’ogni cosa sarà la quantità secondo parerà con buon giuditio. Et piglinosi fette di pane investite con rossi d’uova, & soffritte in butiro, o strutto, & quando saranno fritte, cavinosi, & lascinosi rifreddare un poco, e stendavisi sopra la compositione & ponganosi le dette fette coperte della detta compositione in una tortiera dove sia butiro, o strutto, & come saranno accommodate, diasi loro una calda sotto & sopra come s’è fatto all’altro, overo ponganosi in forno ben temperato, & quando la compositione sarà fermata, servanosi calde con sugo di melangole & zuccaro sopra.
To make the said crostate (toasts) or dripping bread with brains and sweet bread (thymus) of veal. Chapter 231, second book
Put to boil the brains and sweetbreads and when they are boiled pull them out.  Fry the sweet breads with lard or “lardo colato”  and chop them finely with knives with mint, marjoram, thyme and fresh fennel and mix these with the brains with pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, grated cheese, sugar, raw egg yolks, sour orange juice or clear verjuice and enough salt.  Everything should be as much as one thinks with good judgement.  And take slices of bread soaked with egg yolks and fry them in butter or lard. When they are fried take them out and let them cool a bit, and spread on top of them the mixture and put the said slices covered in the said mixture in a tart pan where there is butter or lard and when they are arranged give them a heat above and below like one does for the others, or put into a moderate oven and when the mixture is set serve them hot with sour orange juice and sugar on top.

Part 2 – The feet and bits
More than just dishes of feet and salads of feet, some of those unusual bits were critical in making one of the chefs most time consuming dishes, perfectly clear, colored and flavored jellies.  Bits such as ears, feet etc are naturally high in connective tissue and therefore gelatin.  
Per far pottagio di piedi di castrato Cap LXXIIII Secondo libro
Pelati & netti che saranno i piedi, taglinosi in pezzuoli, et ponganosi al foco in un vaso con tanta acqua, che stiano coperti, et fette di presciutto, & agresto chiaro, vin bianco, & cipolle spaccate & spetierie communi, & zafferano a bastanza, & poi turisi il vaso, & facciasi bollire su le bragie lontano dalla fiammo per spatio di tre hore, & cotti che saranno servanosi cosi caldi con il suo brodo sopra, & sarà in arbitrio di mettervi una brancata di herbuccie battute nel l’ultimo.  Si possono ancho accommodare i detti piedi nel medesimo modo che si accommodano quelli della vitella nel cap 48.
To make a pottage of mutton feet, Chapter 74 Second book
When the feet are washed and peeled cut them in pieces then putt them to the fire in a pan with water enough to cover them, and slices of ham, clear verjuice, white wine, split onions, common spices and enough saffron, then seal the pan and put it to boil on the coals a long way from the flames for the space of three hours.  When it is cooked serve as is hot with the broth from it served on top, and it is up to you to if you wish to add a bunch of chopped herbs at the end.  One can also prepare the said feet in the same way that one prepares those of veal in chapter 48.

Per far gelo di grugni, orecchi, & piedi di porco Cap CCXLII, secondo libro
Piglinosi venti piedi di porco, & sei libre di cotenne, spogliate del grasso, e fresche, quattro grugni, & quattro orecchi, lavisi, nettisi, & facciasi bollire ogni cosa in una pignata con tre boccali di vin bianco, tre d’acqua, & mezo d’aceto, & piu o meno secondo il giuditio, & come sarà schiumata con una cocchiara di legno, vi si porrà un poco di sale, un’oncia di pepe ammaccato, una di cannella, & una di zengevero, & due noci moscate, & si farà bollire ogni cosa insieme e quando gli orecchi e li grugni saranno poco men che cotti si caveranno, e si faranno finir di cuocere in un’altro vaso con vino, aceto, et pepe e sale a bastanze, accioche siano piu saporosi, & come la decottione sarà cotta si farà la prova nel modo detto sopra ne gli altri capitoli, & si le verà tutto il grasso con un cocchiaro di legno, & si passerà la decottione per lo setaccio, & come sarà passata vi si porranno due libre, & mezza di zuccaro, & meza libra di mele sodo, & otto chiare d’uove ben battute, facendo levare il bollo nel modo delli capitoli sopradetti & passandola poi per lo sacco, & come sarà passata habbianosi apparecchiati gli orecchi, & li grugni compartiti in due pezzi; & si accommoderanno con destrezza in piatti, delli quali sia coperto il fonodo di tre dita di gela congelato, e dapoi si reimpino li piatti di gelo freddo in modo che rimangano gli orecchi, & li grugni tra un gelo, & l’atlro, & nel tramezza del gielo con gli orecchi, & li grugni vi si potrà porre de it piedi cotti separati dal gelo nel modo che si cuoceno i detti grugni, & orecchi. Bisogna che il piatta sia fonduto, overo si adoperi un tegame di terra, o un catinello, & come sarà gelato, & fermo, volendo cavarlo dal vaso, facciasi scaldare il vaso nell’acqua caldo, in modo che si veggia scaldata il gelo, & subito si rivolga sopra un piatto grande, o picciolo secondo la quantità, che in questo modo il gelo sarà rilevate sopra il piatto, & se si vorrà porre per dentra appresso g;’orecchi & li grugni delle mandole monde, sarà in arbitrio, & per ornamento intorno al piatto si porranno foglie di lauro. Questo gelo vuole avere dell’acetoso, & pizzicare di spetierie.
To make a jelly of snouts, ears and feet of pork. Chapter 242, second book
Take twenty pigs feet, six pounds of pork head skin, stripped of fat and fresh, four snouts and four ears, washed, cleaned and put these (things) to boil together in a casserole with three “boccali” of white wine, three of water and half (a boccali) of vinegar more or less second to your judgement.  And when (the pot) has been skimmed with a wooden spoon one can add to it a little salt, an ounce of cracked black pepper, one of cinnamon, one of ginger and two nutmegs.  One then boils everything together, and when the ears and the snouts are a little bit less than totally cooked one pulls them out and puts them to finish cooking in another pot with wine, vinegar, pepper and enough salt.  To the end that they become more flavorful. And when the decoction is cooked do the proof (of setting) in the same way given in the other chapters above.  And when all the fat has been removed with a wooden spoon one passes the decoction through a hair sieve. When it is sieved one can add two and a half pound of sugar, half a pound of hard honey and eight egg whites well beaten, put it to rise to a boil in the same way described in above chapters and pass it through the jelly sack. And when it has been strained have ready the ears and snouts split in two and arrange them with care in plates.  The which (plates) are covered in the bottom with three fingers depth of congealed jelly, and after one refills the plates with cold jelly in the way that the ears and snouts stay between one layer of jelly and the other.  And between the two gels with the ears and snouts one can also add feet cooked sparately from the jelly in the same way one cooked the snout and ears. This needs a shallow plate, otherwise one can use a casserole (bowl) of ceramic or a small bowl and when it is set and firm one needs to empty it from the bowl, heat the bowl with hot water in the way that the it just warms the gel and immediately turn it onto a large or small plate, dependent on the amount, and in this way the jelly is raised above the plate, and if you want to put inside between the ears and the snouts several peeled almonds that is up to you.  And to decorate around the plate laurel leaves.  This jelly should be tart with vinegar and sharp (bitey) with spices.

Per far pasticcio di tesicoli di Toro, & d’altri quadrupedi Cap XXXV Quinto libro.
Piglinsi i testicoli subito morto l’animale scorticati, & si faccino perlessare in acqua, & sale, & perlessati che sono si spoglino dell’altra pellicula che hanno sopra, & si taglino per traverso; si poi si ne facci pasticcio nel modo che si fa delle animelle di vitella a cap 9 cosi si farà di quelli del bufalo vecchio, & del verro domestico, & salvatico, & del agnello grosso; si possono anchora mettere in cassa cosi crudi con presciutto tagliato minuto, overo con compositione delle cervellate o di salciccia. In questo modo si puon accommodare quelli del capretto con le loro borsette, & volendogli porre sapori dentro, quando sono presso a cotti, sarà in arbitrio. Et tal pasticci d’ogni tempo vogliono essere serviti caldi, quelli de gli manzetti sono sempre assai migliori di quelli del toro, & anchora qelli dei bufalotto giovanne, si possono accommodare in questo modo.
To make a pastry of testicles of bulls and other four legged animals. Chapter 35, 5th book.
Take the testicles as soon as the animal is dead and put them to parboil in water and salt, and when they are parboiled one strips them of the other skin they have on the outside and cuts them in half.  Then one can make the pastry in the same way that one makes for sweetbread of veal in chapter 9, and one does the same for those from old buffalo and of domestic and wild hogs, and large sheep.  One can also put them into the (pastry) case as they are raw with ham cut very finely, or with a mixture of cervellate or sausage.  In this way one can also prepare those of goat with their sacs, and if one wants to add a sauce inside (the pastry) when it is nearly cooked that is up to you. And these pastries at all times want to be served hot.  And those of the steer are always better than those of the bull, and also those of young bufalo it is possible to prepare in this way.  
(For the recipe for sweetbread tart see section 3).

Part 3 – The squishy inside stuff
Under this section falls the usual suspects and a few unusual ones, the dreaded liver, tripe (stomachs), teats, kidney, etc
Per fare pasticcio d’animelle di Vitella Cap IX quinto libro
Piglinsi l’animelle immediate morta la vitella, & lavinosi in piu acque, levandogli il sangue che molte volte hanno incirca & si piglierà la parte migliore, taglierassi in pezzi di grossezza d’un ovo, & si spolverizzino di pepe, cannella, garofali, noci moscate, & piglisi presciutto che habbia del grasso, & del magro tagliato a dadi, & medolla di boue, overo rognone di vitella battuto, cioè il suo grasso, & habbisi apparecchiata la cassa del pasticcio grande, & piccola secondo la quantità dell’animelle, & si ponga nel fondo la medolla del boue, overo il grasso battuto, & una parte del presciutto, & sopra esse si metta l’animelle con altretanta materia sopra, giungendole uva spina, o agresto intiero, overo uva passa.  Questo sarà secondo i tempi; coprasi il pasticcio & si faccia cuocere al forno, & servasi caldo, & volendo tal pasticcio con la salza, fatta di rossi d’ova crude, zuccaro, & agresto chiaro, non occurre metterci uva spina, ne agresto intiero, ne l’uva passa.  Si può anchora far trarre un boglio all’animelle avanti che si taglino, ma io trovo che mettendole crude sono piu saporite, & in luogo dell medolla di boue, o grasso battuto, si può mettere nel fondo del pasticcio, della compositione di cervellate, or di salciccia fina, & con esse animelle l’Autunno, & l’Invernata si può mettere di tartufoli crudi mondi, & la Primavera di prugnoli.  
To make a pie of veal sweet breads. Chapter 9 5th book.
Take the sweet breads as soon as the veal is dead and wash them in plenty of water, lifting from them the blood that many times they have around them.  One takes the best part and cuts them in pieces the size of an egg and dusts them with pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and take ham, that has both fat and lean and cut into fingers, and beef marrow or veal kidney chopped, that is it’s fat (suet), and have ready a case of pastry large or small dependent on the amount of sweetbreads, and one puts into the bottom the marrow or suet chopped and some of the ham, and above this one puts the sweetbreads and more of the other stuff above, add gooseberries, whole verjuice grapes, or dried currants.  Dependent on the time of year, and cover the pie and put it to cook in the oven, and serve hot, and if you want to make the pie with a sauce, made of raw egg yolks, sugar and clear verjuice do not add gooseberries nor whole verjuice grapes nor currants.  One can also give a quick boil to the sweetbreads before you cut them but I find that if you put them in raw they are tastier, and in the place of marrow or suet you can put in the bottom of the pie the mixture of cervellate or fine sausage.  And with these sweetbreads in Autumn and Winter one can put peeled raw truffles, and in the spring prugnoli (a spring agaric).

Per cuocere in piu modi i fegati d’oche, di papari, d’anatre, di pavoni, di galli d’India, di capponi, di galline, & di ogni altra sorte de volatili. Cap CL, secondo libro
Tragli altri fegati quello del cappone, & della gallina nostrale è il piu perfetto, poi quello dell’oca, & del paparo, e tutti per esser buoni, vogliono esser cavati, & cocinati subito morto il volatile.  Delli piu grossi si potranno far fegatelli in rete di capretto, o di castrato, o di porco, & cuocersi nello spedo tramezati con alcune fetoline di lardo, & di foglie di lauro o di salvia. Si possono ancho friggere in strutto dapoi che saranno infarinati, & senza essere infarinati con fettoline di presciutto. Gli altri piu piccioli si potranno soffriggere con grasso di cappone, & di tutti li sudetti fegati si potranno fare diverse fricassee con uva spina, overo agresto intiero, & in qualunque modo siano cotti, vogliano rimaner piu tosto un poco verdi, che troppo cotti, ma il fegato dell’oche domestiche che allevano i Giudei è d’estrema grossezza, & pesa due, & tre libre; Et subito morto il volatile si cava, & si fa stare in latte di vacca tepido per un giorno, mutandogli il latte fresco due volte. Cresce il detto fegato nel latte, & nel cuocere si fa piu tenero, & vuole essere involto nella rete, & cuocersi nello spedo intiero, benche con gran difficulta si fa star fermo.  Cotto che sarà vuol’esser servito caldo, & non volendolo nello spedo s’infarinerà, & si farà cuocere in una padella dove sia strutto liquefatto, rivolgendolo alcune volte, overo si cuocerà nella detta padella con la rete medesima, & si servirà caldo con sugo di melangole, & zuccaro sopra, si potrà ancho tagliare in fette, et infarinare, et friggere con lo strutto.  Delli detti fegati si potranno ancho far tommacelle come è detto di quello del porco nel Cap 107.
To cook in many ways the liver of: geese, doves, ducks, peahens, turkeys, capons, hens and every other sort of bird. Chapter 150 2nd book.
Among other livers those from the capon and from the native hen are the most perfect, then that of the goose and gosling, and all the others to be good should be taken and cooked as soon as the bird is dead.  Of the largest ones one can make faggots in the caul of goat or whether or pig and cook them on the spit interleaved with several slices of “lardo” and leaves of bay or of sage.  One can also fry them (faggots) in grease after they have been floured, and without flouring with slices of ham.  The other smaller (livers) one can fry in capon fat, and with all these said livers one can make varied fricasees with gooseberries or whole sour grapes, and in whatever way they are cooked they should stay more than a little green (raw) rather than over cooked.  But the liver of the domestic goose that the Jews bread is of extreme size, weighing two or three pounds.  As soon as the animal is dead one pulls the liver and puts it to marinate in warm cows milk for a day, changing the mild for fresh twice.  Pull the said liver from the mild and in the cooking it will be much more tender, and one needs to wrap it in caul fat, and cook it whole in the spit, because it is with great difficulty that it stays firm.  When it is cooked it should be served hot, and if you don’t want to cook it on the spit flour it and put it to cook in a pan where there is liquid lard, turning it several times.  Or cook it in a frying pan with the same caul on it and one serves it hot with sour orange juice and sugar above.  One can also cut it into slices, flour it and fry it in lard.  Of the said livers one can also make tommacelle (liver sausage) like that said for pork in chapter 107.

Per far tommacelle di fegato di porco.  Cap CVII Secondo libro
Il fegato come sarà netto di quella pellicina, & delli suoi nervetti facciasi bollire in acqua senza sale fin’a tanto che il sangue sia bene stramortito, & dapoi cavisi, & pongasi in acqua fredda, & lascisi stare fin’a tanto che sia sodo, & dapoi cavisi, & grattisi leggiermente con la grattacascio, et per ogni libra di tal fegato grattato ponanosi due oncie d’uva passa di Corinto ben netta, & altretanto zuccaro, & sei oncie di midolla di boue cruda, tagliata in bocconcini, & tre oncie di songia del detto porco, che ne sia levata la pelle, e tagliata a dadi, quattro oncie di cascio Parmeggiano grattato, tre quarti di cannella pesta, meza oncia tra zengevero, et noci moscate, un quarto di garofani, un’ottava di zafferano, quattro rossi d’uove crude, et un poco di sale, et fatta che sarà la compositione, habbiasi una rete di porco netta di peli, et d’ogni altra immonditia, mollificata con acqua calda, tinta di zafferano, et di tal compositione faccianosi le tommacelle di grossezza d’una palla Fiorentina, et fatte che saranno ongasi la detta rete di rossi d’uove battute, et lascinosi riposare per un giorno prima che si cocinino, et cuocanosi nello spedo, o su la graticola, o nella padella con lo strutto liquefatto, et servanosi calde con sugo di melangole, et zuccaro sopra.
To make “tomacelle” (liver pudding) of pork liver. Chapter 107 second book
The liver when it is cleaned of the skin and of it’s veins put it to boil in water without salt until the blood is faint and then pull it out and put it into cold water.  Leave it there until it becomes firm then take it out and grate it gently with the cheese grater.  And for every pound of this grated liver add two ounces of Corinth raisins well cleaned, and as much sugar, six ounces of beef marrow, raw cut into bite sized pieces, and three ounces of lard from the said pig, that has been taken from the skin and cut into dice, four ounces of grated parmesan cheese, three quarters (of an ounce) of ground cinnamon, half an ounce between ginger and nutmeg, a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, an eighth (of an ounce) of saffron, four raw egg yolks and a little salt.  When the mixture is made have ready a caul of pork, cleaned of skin and any other contaminant, softened in warm water tinted with saffron, and with the mixture make the liver puddings as large as a Florentine ball.  When they are made wash the caul with beaten egg yolk, and let them rest for a day before cooking them.  Cook them on the spit or on the grill or in a frying pan with melted lard, and serve them hot with sour orange juice and sugar on top.

Per cuocere il sangue della sopradetta vitella in piu modi.  Cap LIX Secondo libro.
Anchor che queste vivande non siano in uso, pur si possono acconciare in diversi modi come si accommoda il polmone; Però subito cavato della bestia facciasi perlessare senze sale in un vaso largo, dove sia molta acqua et pongasi tal sangue in acqua che bolla, percioche ponendolo in acqua fredda, andarebbe al fondo per la sua gravezza,e t s’attaccherebbe, et perlessato che sarà, cavisi, et lascisi rifreddare, e taglisi in fette, o bocconcini, et soffriggasi nella padella con cipollette, et servasi con sale, et sugo di melangole sopra: et volendolo ne gli altri modi; tengasi l’ordine, ch’io ho detto che si tiene nel polmone della vitella al Cap LVI.
To cook the blood of the above said veal in many ways. Chapter 59, second book
Although this food isn’t used, however it is possible to prepare it in several ways as one prepares lungs.  However as soon as it has fallen from the animal it should be parboiled without salt in an ample pot, where there is a lot of water. Add the blood to boiling water, because if one adds it to cold water it will go to the bottom, because of it’s weight, and attach.  When it is parboiled, take it out and let it cool and cut into slices or morsels and fry them in a frying pan with small onions and serve with salt and sour orange juice on top.  And if you want it in other ways follow the method that I have said one uses for veal lungs in chapter 56.

Per fare strutto di songia di porco domestico. Cap CXI, secondo libro
Nel 1 lib. Ho mostrato come si conosca la bontà dello strutto, e come si conservi et nel present capit. volendo dire in che modo si ha da fare esso strutto, comincio, che si piglia la songia del porco fresca, et si netti di quelle pellicine, e talisi in bocconcini di grossezza come i dadi (ilche si fa, accioche venga a liquefarsi meglio, & non si brusci come sarebbe se fosse battuta con li coltelli) & pongasi in una caldora ampla, & per ogni quantità di cinquanta libre della detta songia ponganovisi cinque libre di acqua chiara nel fondo della caldara prima che si ponga lo songia, & facciasi struggere la detta songia con foco lento mescolandola con una libra di sale, & piu o meno secondo il tempo, che si vorrà conservare, & come la songia sarà liquefatta, & bollita per lo spatio di meza hora, si colerà per un setaccio o foratoro minuto in un vaso di terra, over di legno, lasciandola satre fin’a tanto, che l’humidità della songia, & dell’acqua sia andata al fondo, & dapoi pian piano mettasi in uno altro vaso simile, avvertendo che il fondaccio non vada giù & conservisi nel medesimo vaso in loco fresco fin’a tanta che si vorrà adoperare.
To make rendered lard of domestic pork fat, chapter 111, second book
In the first book I showed how to know good lard, and how to keep it and in this book I want to tell you the way that one uses to make this lard.  It starts as one takes the fat from fresh pork and one cleans it of all the little skins and cuts it into morsels the size of dice (this one does in order that it melts better and does not burn as perhaps it would if one minced it with knives) and put it into a large casserole and for every fifty pounds of the said fat add fifty pounds of clear water in the bottom of the casserole before you add the fat.  And let the fat melt with a slow fire underneath it, mixing with a pound of salt, more or less dependent on the (length of) time you want to keep it, and when the fat is melted and boiled for half an hour one strains it by a hair sieve or fine colander into a pottery or wood vessel, and let it stay there until all the water and the moisture from the fat has settled in the bottom.  Then very slowly one puts it into another similar vessel, taking care that the bottom liquid does not go there, and keep it in the same vessel in a cool place until you want to use it.

Per soffriggere, & far diverse fricassee di Zinna di Vaccina. Cap XVIII Secondo libro

Dapoi che la Zinna sarà bene alessata con acqua, & sale, overo con il presciutto, lascisi riffreddare fuori del brodo, & se si vorrà friggere nello strutto, over nel lardo colato, si taglierà in fette sottili di grossezza d’una costa di coltello, levandole quella pellicina che ha intorno, & infarinandola in fior di farina, overo adorandola con rossi d’uova sbattuti, zuccaro, acqua di rosa, cannella, zafferano, & pan grattato, & fritto che sarà in qual si voglia modo ha da esser servita cosi calda con sugo di melangole, & zuccaro sopra, over con altri sapori, & ancho senza esser infarinata, ne adoperata, si può friggere con alcune fettoline di presciutto, & cipollette battute.  Servendola poi cosi calda con pepe & cannella sopra, ma se si vorrà in fricassea con vove sbattute, si friggerà cosi semplice, colando poi fuora una parte di quel grasso, & giungendovi un cochiara di brodo, tinta con zafferanno, pepe, cannella, zuccaro, agresto chiaro, & rossi d’uove sbattute. La quantità delle robbe sarà secondo il giuditio, & come haverà levato il bollo, di modo che habbia alquanto di corpo, si servirà con zuccaro & cannella sopra.
To fry and make various fricassees of cow udder. Chapter 18 second book.
After the teat has been well boiled in water and salt, or with ham, let it cool outside of the broth, and if you want to fry it in lard or strained “lardo” one cuts it into slices as thin as the back of a knife, lift the skin that is around it and flour it, or adorn it with beaten egg yolks, sugar, rose water, cinnamon, saffron and grated bread.  Fry it, whichever way you have made it, and serve it hot with sour orange juice and sugar on top, or with other sauces.  Also without it being neither floured nor coated one can fry it with several small slices of ham and chopped onions.  Serve it thusly hot with pepper and cinnamon on top.  But if you want it in fricassee with beaten eggs one fries it simple, pouring of a part of the fat and adding a spoonful of broth tinted with saffron, pepper, cinnamon, sugar, clear verjuice, and beaten egg yolks.  The quantity of the coating is up to your judgment, and when it has come to a boil, in the way that it has taken on body, one serves it with sugar and cinnamon on top.

Per fare crostata di rognone di vitella, et di polpa di lonza di detta vitella arrostita allo spedo Cap LII Quinto libro
Piglisi la parte della lonza della vitella, doe è attaccato il rognone, et facciasi refare all’acqua, et impillottisi di presciutto vergellato che non sia rancido, et facciasi piu di mezzo cuocere allo spedo, cavisi, et cosi calda levisi la polpa da gl’ossi, in modo che non ci sia, ne pelle, ne nervi, & battasi minuta su la tavola, con i coltelli, & battuta che sarà mescolisi con menta, maiorana, pimpinella, & pepe, cannella, garofali, & noci moscate, & zuccaro, & pignoli che sieno stati in mollo, & tartufoli mondi tagliati minuti, & poi habbisi apparecchiato la tortiera con i suoi sfogli, & tortiglione sfogliato in circa nel modo detto di sopra, & pongasi dentro essa compositione, la quale sia stata sbruffata d’agresto chairo & sugo di melangole, & volendosi tal crostata doppia, pongasi nel mezzo della compositione un sfoglio della grandezza della tortiera, fritto in strutto, facendo ch la compositione sia tanto di sopra, quanto di sotto ; cuoprasi con li tre sfogli onti tra l’uno e l’altro di butiro, overo un solo grossetto con alcune liste sfogliate sopra ongasi & cuocasi nel forno nel modo soppascritto.  In questo modo si può fare delle polpe di galline d’India, de fagiani, & de capponi, & d’altri volatili grossi arrostiti allo spedo, mescolati con rognone di vitella arrostita allo spedo, overo con medolla di boue, & l’altre materie soprascritte, & volendosi fare torta giungasegli cascio & ova, con un bicchiere di latte, & servasi calda con zuccaro fino sopra.
To make a pie of veal kidney and loin meat of the said veal roasted on the spit, Chapter 52 5th book.
Take the part of the loin of veal where it is attached to the kidney and firm it in water, and lard it well with fatty ham that isn’t rancid, and put it to more than half cook on the spit.  Take it and thus hot lift the meat from the bones in such as way that there are no bones, or skin or nerves, and chop it finely on the table with knives.  When it is chopped mix with it mint, marjoram, thyme, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, sugar and pine nuts which have been soaked, and peeled truffles chopped small.  Then have prepared a tart pan with two sheets (of pastry) and wreaths of pastry around (it) in the way described above.  And put inside this mixture, which has been sprinkled with clear verjuice and sour orange juice.  And if you want to make it with two crusts put in the middle of this filling a sheet (of pastry) the size of the tart pan which has been fried in lard.  Make sure that the filling is as much above as it is below.  Cover it with three sheets, greased between each layer with butter or with a single larger layer with several layered strips (of pastry) on top, grease it and cook in the oven in the above said way.  In this way one can make it also of the meat of Turkey, pheasant, capon and other large birds roasted on the spit.  Mixed with veal kidney roasted on the spit or with beef marrow, and the other materials above said.  If you want to make a tart add to it cheese and eggs with a beaker of milk and serve hot with fine sugar above.

Per cuocere trippe di vitella mongana in diversi modi Cap LVII Secondo libro
Piglisi la parte migliore delle trippe, che son le budelle picciole, & li grosso, et sopra tutto siano ben netto, & riverfate, et sciacquate in piu acque, & faccianosi bollire per un quarto d’hora nell’acqua senza sale, schiumandole molto bene, et havendo avvertenza che siano sotto l’acqua, perche verrebbeno negre; & bollite che saranno, cavinosi, et ponanosi in acqua fredda, et come saranno rifreddate, compartanosi in piu pezzuoli, et rimettanosi in un’altro vaso piu picciolo con brodo di carne, che non sia tropppo salato, & gola di porco, che non sia rancida.  Il che si fa accioche piglino sapore, et restino piu bianche, et faccianosi finir di cuocere con il detto brodo; et cotte che saranno, servanosi in piatti con cascio, et cannella sopra, et nell’ultimo ancho si puo aggiungere con una branata di herbuccie battute, et se non sarà con esse cotto del presciutto, si potranno incorporare con uove battute,e cascio, si potranno ancho le dette trippe dapoi che saranno alessate, e tagliate in bocconcini soffriggere in strutto liquefatto, overo in lardo colato con cipollette battute, et farne tutte quelle fricassee, che si fanno dell’animelle della detta vitella.  Volendo le dette trippe fritte in un’altro modo, piglinosi le budelle, le quali siano più di meze cotte, et compartire in più pezzuoli, piglinosi poi li detti pezzuoli di trippe, et investiscanosi in una compositione fatta d’uove sbattute, acqua di rose, vin bianco, zafferano, et salle, et frigganosi in modo, che essi pezzuoli vengono come frittelle crespatte, et cotte che saranno, servanosi calde con zuccaro, et cannella sopra.  Sarà però molto meglio taglia li pezzuoli quando saranno crude, che dapoi che saranno cotte, et volendo le trippe su la graticola, tagliate che saranno crude in pezzi faccianosi perlessare in modo che siano ben cotte, et cavinosi dal brodo, lascinosi rifreddare, et diasi loro una calda su la graticola, bagnandole continuamente di strutto liquefatto, et servanosi caldi con mostarda forte, o altra sapor sopra.
To cook milk fed veal tripe in various ways.  Chapter 57 second book
Take the best part of the tripe, that is the small and large guts, and above all make sure that they are well cleaned and turned inside out and washed with plenty of water, and put them to boil for a quarter of an hour in water without salt, skimming the pan very well, and have care that they stay under the water, else they turn black.  When they are boiled take them out and put them into cold water, and when they are cold split them into pieces.  Put them in a smaller pan with meat broth, which is not too salty, and cured pork jowl which is not rancid.  This one does in order that it has more taste and stays whiter, and let it finish cooking in this broth. When it is cooked serve it in platters with cheese and cinnamon on top, also at the end one can add a handful of chopped herbs.  If it was not cooked with ham one can enrich it with beaten eggs and cheese.  One can also take the said tripe after it is boiled and cut it into bites and fry them in melted lard or strained “lardo” with chopped onions and make of it all the fricassees that one makes with sweet bread of veal.  If you want the tripe fried in another way take the guts, which are more than half cooked, and split them into many pieces, take then the said pieces of tripe and enrobe them in a mixture made of beaten eggs, rose water, white wine, saffron and salt and fry them in the way that these pieces become like crisp fritters, and when they are cooked serve them hot with sugar and cinnamon on top.  And if you want the tripe on the grill, cut them while they are raw and parboil them so that they are well cooked.  Take them from the broth, let them cool and give them a heat on the grill, bathing them continuously with melted lard and serve them hot with strong mustard or other sauce above.

Per cucinar la milza di boue, o di vaccina in piu modi Cap XXI, secondo libro
Sopra tutto la milza ha da esser fresca, che non passi un giorno, nella qual con destrezza si farà un buco nel mezo, over da un canto, in modo che si possa impire d’una compositione di lardo battuto, aglio, petresemolo, menta, maiorano, cascio grattato, rossi d’uova, spetierie communi, & piena che sarà, si cuscirà in modo, che non possa uscir fuora la compositione, & si potrà porre nello spedo overo in forno, nel modo che s’è posto il lombo al capitolo 8. Si potrebbe ancho alessare, & poi lasciarla rifreddare, e tagliarla in fette, & friggerla nella padella con lo strutto, nel modo, che s’è fritta la fricassea del fegato, & cotto che sarà in qualunque modo, si servirà cosi calda con alcuni saporetti sopra.  Si può ancho quando è ben cotta & alessata, in fette ricuocere su la graticola.
To cook the spleen of beef or cow in many ways, chapter 21, second book
Above all the spleen should be fresh, not older than one day.  Take it and with care put a hole in the middle or at one side, in the way that one can stuff it with a stuffing made of chopped “lardo” garlic, parsley, mint, marjoram, grated cheese, egg yolks and common spices.  When it is stuffed one cooks it in a way that the stuffing can’t come out.  One can put it on the spit, or in the oven, in the same way that one does the loin in chapter 8.  One can also boil it then let it chill and cut it into slices and fry it in a frying pan with lard, in the way that one fries the fricassee of liver, and when it is cooked, in whatever way, one serves it hot with various sauces above.  One can also, when it is well cooked and boiled, re-cook it in slices on the grill.  

Part 4 – Fish bits?
Fish have innards too you know, but the majority of the fish had innards too small to be considered in the recipes, except for sturgeon and tuna which take their place in the collection of animals which provide other stuff for you to eat other than regular “meat”.  The three things that turn up are the milk which is the sperm sac from male fish (known in English as milt), the liver, and the guts.  There are also recipes for sturgeon eggs, which as everyone knows today as caviar, which I have also included a recipe for although I don’t consider it wierd.
Per fare crostata di fegato, & latte di Storione Cap CXCVIII Quinto libro
Piglisi il fegato dello storione privo del fiele, & lavisi, & taglisi in fettoline, il simile facciasi del latte, involgasi nella compositione di pepe, cannella, garofali, & zuccaro, & habbiasi apparecchiata la tortiera, onta d’olio, o di butiro con tre sfogli di pasta sottilissimi, & il suo tortiglione sfogliato intorno, fatti di fior di farina, rossi d’ova, butiro, acqua rosa, sale, et latte di capra tiepide, o acqua commune, & essi sfogli sieno onti di butiro, tra l’uno, & l’altro, & sopra essi sfogli spolverizzisi della medesima spetieria, & zuccaro & pongasi sopra menta, & maiorana battuta, & uva spina, overo uva passa, & rossi d’ove dure infrante minutamente, pongasi poi il fegato, & latte sopra, & con essi la Primavera prugnoli freschi, l’Invernati secchi stati in mollo, rimettendogli di quella compositione sopra, che si è messa sotto, con sugo di melangole.  Cuoprasi la tortiera con dui altri sfogli onti di butiro, & di sopra alcune liste sfogliate; poi col coltello che tagli, & sia caldo in punta, taglisi il tortiglione, & ongasi di butiro squagliato a torno a torno, il simile faccisi a quelle liste sfogliate, che si sono messe sopra, & faccisi cuocere nel forno, o sotto il testo, non mancando d’ongela di butiro squagliato, accioche le liste, & il tortiglione sfogli meglio, & cotta che sarà servasi calda con zuccaro, & acqua rosa sopra, & alcune volte si puo mettere in essa crostata fettoline di provatura fresca.
To make a crostata (thin pie) of Sturgeon milt and liver. Chapter 198, 5th book.
Take the liver of the sturgeon without the gall, and wash it and cut it in slices and similarly prepare the milt, toss them in a mixture of pepper, cinnamon, cloves and sugar.  Have ready prepared a tart pan greased with oil or with butter with three of the thinnest layers of pastry, with the layered pastry wreaths around, made of flour wheat, egg yolks, butter, rose water, salt, and tepid goats milk or common water, and these layers should be greased between one and the other and above them dusted with the same spices and sugar.  Put in mint and marjoram chopped, gooseberries or dried currants and hard egg yolks broken up into tiny pieces.  Then add the liver and milt mixture, and with this in spring fresh Prugnoli and in winter dried which have been soaked, add more of the mixture above, so that it is put in the middle, with sour orange juice.  Cover the tart with two other sheets greased with butter, and with several layered sheets of pastry, then with a knife which cuts, and is hot at the point cut the wreaths, and grease with melted butter around and around, the same do to the layered pieces that are on top.  Put it to cook in the oven or under a “testo” not forgetting to grease with melted butter in order that the pieces and the tortiglione separate into layers better. When it is cooked serve it hot with sugar and rose water above, and at times you may add to these tart slices of fresh provatura.
Per far frittata con uova di Storione, & uova di polli Cap XXV Terzo libro
Piglisi una libra d’uove di storione fresche, pestinosi nel mortaro, & pasinosi per lo foratoro, o per lo setaccio, & diece uove di galline bene sbattute con un poco di herbette battute, pepe, cannella, & sale, & un poco di latte, overo acqua, & faccianosene le frittate nel modo che si fanno l’altro, & servanosi con zuccaro, & cannella, & sugo di melangole sopra.  Si possano anco fare senza l‘uova di gallina con un poco di mollica di pane.
To make an omelet with Sturgeon eggs and chicken eggs, chapter 25 3rd book.
Take a pound of fresh sturgeon eggs and grind them in the mortar then strain them through a colander or hair sieve, add ten hen eggs well beaten with a little bit of chopped herbs, pepper, cinnamon, salt and a little milk or water.  Make the omelets (fritters) in the same way that you make all the others (fry in a frying pan with oil or butter) and serve them with sugar, cinnamon and sour orange juice on top.  One can also make without hens eggs with a little crumb of bread.

Per cuocere i budelli di Storioni in piu modi Cap XXII, Terzo libro
Il storione (come nel principo dissi) non ha piu d’un budello, il qual è lubricoso, & di color di ruggine, & è assai piu duro che il resto dello storione; ha un gruppo nel mezo, e sfendesi per lo lungo, è con un coltello si cava quella materia ch’è dentro, e quella di fuora con un poco di sale, come sarà ben netto, si lava, e si taglia in pezzi, e si pone in un pignatta o in un’altro vaso con agresto, cipolle soffritte battute, acqua, e sale, e un poco di vin bianco, e si fanno bollire per spatio di tre hore pian piano, & all’ultimo prima che si vogliano servire, vi si aggiunge una brancata di herbette battute, pepe, cannella, & zafferano abastanza, si serveno con pepe & cannella sopra. Si puo anco far bollire il budello in acqua & sale solo fin’à tanto che sia ben cotto, & si puo compartire in pezzi nel modo soprascritto, & farne pottaggio con le medesime materie, & in loco d’acqua mettervi del brodo, nel qual’è cotto, anco dapoi ch’è alessato si soffrigge in oglio, havendolo prima infarinato, & si serve con sugo di melangole, & pepe sopra.
To cook the guts of Sturgeon in several ways, chapter 22, 3rd book
The sturgeon, (like I said before) does not have more than one gut, it is slippery and the color of rust and it is much firmer than the rest of the sturgeon and it has a crop in t he middle.  Split it along the length and with a knife one empties it of the stuff inside, and outside with a little salt.  When it is cleaned one washes it and cuts it into pieces.  Put it in a stewing pot or other pan with verjuice, chopped fried onions, water, salt and a little white wine.  One boils it for three hours at a very low heat and at the last, just before you want to serve it add to it a handfull of chopped herbs, pepper, cinnamon and enough saffron.  Serve it with pepper and saffron on top.  Once can also boil the guts in water and salt alone until it is well cooked, and one can split it into pieces in the way said above and make a pottage of the same materials.  In the place of water you can put it into broth where it cooks.  Also having first boiled it you can fry it in oil, having first floured it and serve it with sour orange juice and pepper on top.

Part 5 – notes on weights, measures and ingredients.
The Italian pound (libra) used in these recipes corresponds to about 12 modern ounces
The Italian ounce is about equivalent to the modern ounce.
Lardo – salted pork fat, in Scappi it says that it should have been preserved in salt for at least three months, online definitions of lardo describe it as: “a cured meat made from the layer of fat found directly under the pig's skin. This layer is cut into rectangular pieces and packed into large vats for salting and curing. Various seasonings, which usually include garlic and pepper, are added between each layer and the lardo is left to soak in brine for three months to a year.”  
Lardo colato – Lardo which has been melted (with just a little water) and is strained for use
Strutto – what we know as lard, fresh pork fat rendered with lots of water and strained
Strutto liquefatto – melted lard.
Tortiglione – turn up in pastry recipes where several thin layers of pastry are being put in a pan, the imrpession is of a rolled thin layer of pastry, making a wreath, which is put on the edge of the pan before the lid.  Think of it as ensuring that the edge is puffier.  
Liste – pastry bits, scraps, ribbons, usually layered pastry put on top, the same thing we do with puff pastry leaves on top of a puff pastry lid.
Testo – a special pan which holds coals and allows pies to be baked on the fire, similar to a dutch oven lid
Prugnoli – a spring mushroom related to the field mushroom Agaricus prugnoli.  Modern substitution would be Agaricus bisporus var. crimini– or the common crimini mushroom.  


Scappi, B., Opera : (dell' arte del cucinare).  Reprint. First published: Opera di M. Bartolomeo Scappi. Venice, 1570. 1981, Bologna: Arnaldo Forni. [20], 436 leaves [ca. 888 p.], [28] p. of plates.  Online edition
Florio J.  A dictionary of Italian & English, Formerly compiled by John Floria and since his last edition, anno 1611, augmented by himselfe in his life time with many thousand words and tuscan phrases.  Now most diligently revised, corrected and compared with la Crusca and other approved dictionaries extant since his death and enriched with many considerable editions.  Printed by T. Warren for Fa. Martin, Fa. Allestry and the Dicas, and are to be sold at the signe of the Bell in S. Pauls Church-Yard.  MDCLIX.  Available in searchable online form.

Copyright - Helewyse de Birkestad, OL, July 2007.