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Medieval Cookery - A Dictionary of Middle-English Cooking Terms

The index below covers a range of Middle-English terms used in medieval English cooking texts. Included are some of the more unusual spelling variants for modern words, English words still in use but considered archaic or old fashioned, and words common to England that may be unknown elsewhere (e.g. the names of English river fish).

Currently listed are terms used in Forme of Cury and Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books .


rales (rails) : A wetland bird of the genus Rallus.

ransched : Rinsed.

rapes (also: rapus) : Turnips.

raston : A sort of tart made by stuffing bread with butter and breadcrumbs.

rawnes : Fish roe.

restyn (also: restyng) : Turning rancid.

rether : Ox.

rew (also: rewe) : Rue (Ruta graveolens). A medicinal herb.

riall : Royal.

roches : Roach (Rutilus rutilus). A freshwater fish.

roo : Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

roppis : Intestines.

ruayn : A semi-soft cheese made in autumn. Possibly similar to Pont-l'Évêque.

rynysshe wyne : Rhine wine.

rysshews : Small fried pies filled with dried fruits.